Healthcare System in Cuba

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| | | HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN CUBA | | |

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INDEX

• 1) History ……………………………………………………………….. 3 o 1.1 Post-Soviet Union …………………………………………... 3 • 2) Present ………………………………………………………………... 4 • 3) Comparison of pre- and post-revolutionary indices ………………….. 5 o 3.1 Health indicators and issues ………………………………… 5 o 3.2 Sexual health ………………………………………………… 7 o 3.3 Embargo ……………………………………………………… 7 o 3.4 Medical staff in Cuba ………………………………………... 8 o 3.5 Black market healthcare …………………………………….. 8 • 4) Cuba and international healthcare ……………………………………. 9 o 4.1 Health tourism and pharmaceutics …………………………. 10 • 5) Alternative Healthcare ………………………………………………. 11 • 6) Medical research in Cuba ……………………………………………. 12 • 7) Analysis …………………………………………………………….... 13 • 8) Sources ……………………………………………………………… 16

1) HISTORY

Modern Western medicine has been practiced in Cuba by formally trained doctors since at least the beginning of the 19th century and the first surgical clinic was established in 1823. Cuba has had many world class doctors, including Carlos Finlay, whose mosquito-based theory of yellow fever transmission was given its final proof under the direction of Walter Reed, James Carroll, and Aristides Agramonte. During the period of U.S presence (1898–1902) yellow fever was essentially eliminated due to the efforts of Clara Maass and surgeon Jesse W. Lazear.

In 1976, Cuba's healthcare program was enshrined in Article 50 of the revised Cuban constitution which states "Everyone has the right to health protection and care. The state guarantees this right by providing free medical and hospital care by means of the installations of the rural medical service network, polyclinics, hospitals, preventative and specialized treatment centers; by providing free dental care; by promoting the health publicity campaigns, health education, regular medical examinations, general vaccinations and other measures to prevent the outbreak of disease. All the population cooperates in these activities and plans through the social and mass organizations.

Cuba's doctor to patient ratio grew significantly in the latter half of the 20th century, from 9.2 doctors per 10,000 inhabitants in 1958, to 58.2 per 10,000 in 1999. In the 1960s the government implemented a program of almost universal vaccinations. This helped eradicate many contagious diseases including polio and rubella, though some diseases increased during the period of economic hardship of the 1990s, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis and chicken pox. Other campaigns included a program to reduce the infant mortality rate in 1970 directed at maternal and prenatal care.

1. POST-SOVIET UNION

The loss of Soviet subsidies brought famine to Cuba in the early 1990s.

In 2007, Cuba announced that it has undertaken computerizing and creating national networks in Blood Banks, Nephrology and Medical Images. Cuba is the second country in the world with such a product, only preceded by France. Cuba is preparing a Computerized Health Register, Hospital Management System, Primary Health Care, Academic Affairs, Medical Genetic Projects, Neurosciences, and Educational Software. The aim is to maintain quality health service free for the Cuban people, increase exchange among experts and boost research-development projects. An important link in wiring process is to guarantee access to Cuba's Data Transmission Network and Health Website (INFOMED) to all units and...
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