NAME: CHINAZOR NWOKOCHA
STD. ID: 3330731
WORD COUNT: 4077
The Ottawa Charter which was being approved by some researchers, makers of policies and practitioners came together in Canada to make a way for the countries in the WHO EURO region to pursue the Declaration of Alma Ata’s vision of “Health for All by the Year 2000” (WHO, 2011). 3 papers were cited as reminder for the Charter: the Lalonde report (1974), the Alma Ata Declaration and the optimistic meaning of health in preambles of WHO constitution (1946). The WHO constitution suggested an optimistic definition of health for the very first time as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (1946). However, it has been difficult to interpret this meaning of health into the society (Parrish, 2010), it still remains the most likeable and incorporative meaning of health. It creates the positive aspect of health (Kickbusch, 2007) other than the preventive adverse condition. It works as a summary to both the Alma Ata declaration and the Ottawa Charta and begins the statements that health is right of humans and the key elements that form health are societal (Mann, 1996). 2011 made it 25th year’s anniversary of Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, 1986). Sometimes, it is presented as a document that promotes health (Hills & McQueen, 2007), but can be “tip of a much more complicated set of ideas and values” (Saan, 2007). Ottawa charter’s role was independently for public health to integrate health promotion widely. In the western world where it was developed, health promotion was known as the third revolution (Fassin, 2000), and a critical dialogue for public health. In recent times, health promotion has gone wide, not just for an individual alone but also for the community as a whole. This is supported by the Bangkok Charter which made the field of health promotion to be a global awareness by ensuring that there are commitment to be made by health professionals if they want they vision of health promotion in a community to be achieved (WHO, 2005). Therefore, the main worries of public health are to prevent diseases instead of the medicinal aspect of the disease. It deals at the population level other than at the individual levels. The conditions in which people live have a profound influence on their health. Difference in health between individuals and population groups exist in all societies. For example younger age population generally have good health compared to elder population. This kind of health difference cannot be concluded as health inequality because it is natural. So the question is that when the difference in health becomes inequality? According to Graham the difference in health between population groups becomes inequality when it is linked to the inequalities in their position in society (2007). World Health Organisation appointed Committee for the Social Determinates of Health (CSDH) also hold similar view as not all health inequalities are unjust or inequitable. If good health were simply unattainable, this would be unfortunate but not unjust. Where inequalities in health are avoidable, yet are not avoided, they are inequitable (2008). So the differences in health between groups having unequal position in society become an ethical issue. The aims of promoting health are to optimistically enhance the behaviours of individual and the society on their health including those environmental and social factors that could affect their health negatively. Usually, the environment where a person lives is very vital for both the status of his health and quality of Life. It was recognized gradually that maintenance and improvement of health is not only via the progress and application of health science, but via healthy lifestyle choices made by an individual and the society as a whole. Although, the determinants of health according to WHO (2002) which could be economic and...
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