The health promotion model (HPM) proposed by Nola J Pender (1982; revised, 1996) was designed to be a “complementary counterpart to models of health protection.” It defines health as a positive dynamic state not merely the absence of disease. Health promotion is directed at increasing a client’s level of well being. The health promotion model describes the multi dimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health. The model focuses on following three areas: •• Individual characteristics and experiences
•• Behavior-specific cognitions and affect
•• Behavioral outcomes
The health promotion model notes that each person has unique personal characteristics and experiences that affect subsequent actions. The set of variables for behavioral specific knowledge and affect have important motivational significance. These variables can be modified through nursing actions. Health promoting behavior is the desired behavioral outcome and is the end point in the HPM. Health promoting behaviors should result in improved health, enhanced functional ability and better quality of life at all stages of development. The final behavioral demand is also influenced by the immediate competing demand and preferences, which can derail an intended health promoting actions. ASSUMPTIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL
The HPM is based on the following assumptions, which reflect both nursing and behavioral science perspectives: 1. Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior. 2. Individuals in all their biopsychosocial complexity interact with the environment, progressively transforming the environment and being transformed over time. 3. Health professionals constitute a part of the interpersonal environment, which exerts influence on persons throughout their life span. 4. Self-initiated reconfiguration of person-environment interactive patterns is essential to behavior chang THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS OF THE HEALTH...