Background of the Study
Hypertension is a serious condition that affects about two-thirds of people aged 65 above. It is one of the most common worldwide disease afflicting human because of its high morbidity and mortality rate. Prolonged hypertension may cause several dangerous complications including aneurysm, heart failure, cerebro-vascular diseases and even renal damage. Over the years, extensive research and patient education have led to decreased mortality and morbidity rates from multiple complications arising if remained untreated.
Largest problem for controlling high blood pressure (hypertension) is compliance with the treatment. Despite the very effective and cost-effective treatments, target blood pressure levels are very rarely reached, even in countries where cost of medication is not an issue. Many patients still believe that hypertension is a disease that can be cured and stop or reduce medication when blood pressure levels fall. Lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity, high sodium diet with high processed and fatty foods, and alcohol and tobacco abuse are at the heart of this increased disease burden, which is spreading at an alarming rate from developed countries to emerging economies, such as India and China. (Nordqvist et al.)
Essential hypertension remains a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite important advances in our understanding of its pathophysiology and the availability of effective treatment strategies. High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of CVD for millions of people worldwide, and there is evidence that the problem is only getting worse. In the past decade, age-adjusted rates of stroke incidence have risen, and the slope of the age-adjusted rate of decline in coronary disease has leveled off. The incidence of end-stage renal disease and the prevalence of heart failure have also increased. A major contributor to these trends is inadequate control of BP in the hypertensive population. (Oparil et.al.)
This review of current concepts regarding the definition, etiology, and treatment of essential hypertension is intended to aid the clinician in identifying those individuals at high risk who need to undergo evaluation and treatment, as well as in selecting optimal treatment strategies for hypertensive patients with co-morbid conditions and/or target organ damage. The part of the review that deals with the genetic basis of hypertension and the gene/environment interaction that may lead to elevated BP is still a work in progress. Information gained from the Human Genome Project and from ongoing studies of the genetic basis of hypertension both in animal models and human populations may revolutionize the treatment of hypertension by replacing current empirical therapy with more effective, targeted treatments based on the genotype of the patient. Concepts introduced in this review form the basis for such “pharmacogenomic” approaches to anti-hypertensive therapy. (Oparil et.al.)
In the Philippines, One in every four Filipinos suffers from hypertension, which is considered the biggest risk factor for heart and kidney diseases as well as diabetes according to the Department of Health. Worse, the number of Filipinos with hypertension continues to increase. According to Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), hypertensive adult had increased to more than 25.3% compared to 22% in 2003. Heart attack is the most common cause of death among Filipinos and mainly attributed to continuous neglect on danger of hypertension and its complications. (Morales et al.)
Health care system is always been an issue in the Philippines, the problem of access of public health services in remote areas that are far from health care facilities can also be a cause of hypertension among people who lacks knowledge and medical attention. On the 20th of December year 2012, President Benigno Simeon C.Aquino signed the Sin tax...