Chapter 1 Introduction
1. Leadership- a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. 2. Trait vs Process Leadership- innate characteristics that individuals are born with vs properties possessed that one is able to develop. 3. Assigned vs Emergent Leadership- based on occupying a position within an organization vs an individual perceived by others as most influential member of a group regardless of individuals title. 4. Power- capacity or potential to influence (beliefs, attitudes, & actions) 5. Bases of Power:
a. Referent power- follower’s identification and liking for the leader b. Expert- based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence. c. Legitimate- having status or formal job authority.
d. Reward- having the capacity to provide rewards to others. e. Coercive- having the capacity to punish others.
Real, Expert, Leaders, Reward Compliance (1st two are personal power while the ladder three are positional power)
Chapter 2 Trait Approach
* One of the first systematic attempts to study leadership. Early theories focused on innate qualities/characteristics. * Major Leadership traits***:
1. Intelligence- verbal, perceptual, and reasoning capabilities 2. Self-confidence- certainty about one’s competencies and skills 3. Determination- desire to get the job done
4. Integrity- quality of honesty and trustworthiness.
5. Sociability- Leader’s inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships. Israel’s, security, defense, is, strong
* Big Five Personality factors:
1. Neuroticism- tendency to be depressed, anxious, insecure,… (don’t want) 2. Extraversion**- tendency to be sociable and assertive with positive energy. 3. Openness- informed, creative, insightful, and curious. 4. Agreeableness
5. Conscientiousness- thorough, organized controlled, dependable, and decisive. * Emotional Intelligence- ability to perceive and apply emotions to life’s tasks. The premise is that people who are more sensitive to emotions & their impacts will be more effective leaders.
Chapter 3 Skills Approach
* Leadership skills- ability to use one’s knowledge and competencies to accomplish a set of goals and objectives. * Katz developed the Three-Skill Approach:
1. Technical- having knowledge about and being proficient in a specific type of work or activity. 2. Human skill- having knowledge about and being able to work with people. 3. Conceptual skill- the ability to do the mental work of shaping meaning of organizational policy or issues. Top management has high human and conceptual, but low technical. Middle management has high everything
Supervisory management has high technical, high human, and low conceptual.
Chapter 4 Style Approach
Style Approach emphasizes the behavior of the leader:
1. Task behaviors
2. Relationship behaviors
1. Ohio state studies developed a leadership behavior description questionnaire (LBDQ) and it resulted in leaders with initiating structure and consideration. 2. University of Michigan-results in leaders with two type of behavior: employee oriented and production oriented. Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Leadership Grid focuses on concern for production and people.
*Be able to draw this*
Note that the first 4 chapters focused on the leader and his abilities. The next few chapters focus on the interaction with subordinates. Chapter 5 Situational Approach
Leaders must match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates. Leaders need to diagnose the situation and then adapt their style. ****
Chapter 6 Contingency Theory
Leader Match Theory
Fiedler developed the Contingency model
High LPCs are effective in moderately favorable conditions while low LPCs are effective in extreme conditionis. Chapter 7 Path-Goal Theory...