Catalase in found in most organisms that undergo aerobic cellular respiration. Catalase functions mainly to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the body. Organelles called peroxisomes contain antioxidant enzymes, which act in concert to protect cells from damage cause by highly reactive oxygen species [e.g. hydrogen peroxide] that are generated during metabolism. Peroxisomes contain the enzymes catalase, D-amino catalase, urate oxidase, and alpha hydroxylic acid oxidase. The name peroxisome was applied because this organelle is specifically involved in the formation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. H2O2 and free radicals are produced as a result of certain oxidative reaction involved in the break down of amino acids and fats. These are very reactive chemical species that could damage cellular machinery. To protect the cell from these destructive by-products, such reactions are segregated within these small membrane-bound peroxisomes. Purpose:
How does the action of the biological enzyme catalase found in liver compare to that found in potato, and to a non-protein catalyst manganese dioxide. How do changes in substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, surface area and environmental factors such as temperature or pH affect the rate of enzyme activity?
Note that you will be studying the reaction where hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water and oxygen gas. For the rate of chemical reaction use a scale from 0-5 where 0(no bubbling) to 1(very little, slow bubbling) are the lowest rates and 5 is the maximum (lots of bubbling, quick).
2H2O + O2
Variables- something that can change or vary in an investigation.
The cause variable is the independent variable. The one thing you change consciously. The effect variable is the dependent variable. This depends on the variable you purposefully change. (Rate of reaction in this particular lab.) All other variables must be kept constant or controlled.
Cause (independent variable) x-axis
Effect (dependent variable) y-axis If the amount of candy that a person
….then the number of tooth cavities will increase… eats increases…
because candy contains sugar that is used for energy by bacteria in the mouth which produce an acid that decays the teeth.
For each section of this lab complete a prelab where you draw a series of diagrams for each step. Also make a hypothesis as to what will happen and why you think so.
FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY
You will be studying the chemical reaction where hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water and oxygen gas. This occurs spontaneously at a slow rate but can be made to occur faster with the aid of a catalyst.
For the rate of chemical reaction use a scale from 0-5 where 0(no bubbling) to 1(very little, slow bubbling) are the lowest rates and 5 is the maximum (lots of bubbling, quick).
2H2O + O2
Your introduction should include a discussion of what a protein is and more specifically what an enzyme is. You should discuss the fact that enzymes are bio-organic and are sensitive to the conditions of the environment. Expand upon conditions of the environment that might affect the biological activity of enzymes. Then specifically expand upon the enzyme being studied in this lab and its function. You can always do a little extra research on the internet
3% hydrogen peroxide
10 mL pipette
Crushed ice or snow
Test tubes and rack
scalpel or knife
1. Add 2mL of hydrogen peroxide to two test tubes. To one of the test tubes add a pinch of manganese dioxide and cover the mouth with your thumb. 2. Place a glowing splint into the mouth of the test tube.
1. Add 2 mL of hydrogen peroxide to two test tubes.
2. Place a small piece of liver into one...
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