Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) also known as infant death rate, is the death of an infant before his or her first birthday. Infant mortality is calculated, by the number of children who die under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year. Infant mortality rate is very important as it relates to the health of pregnant women, children and infants and it’s associated with maternal health, quality and access to medical care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices. The most important purpose of this review is to examine and understand why African American infants are disproportionately affected and the factors(Low birth weight, preterm birth weight and very low birth weight and infant mortality) .
In the United States, approximately two-thirds of infant deaths occur within the first month after the infant is born. This is due in large to low birth weight (LBW). The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined low birth weight as, weight of less than 2500g (up to and 2499g regardless of gestational age) , preterm birth weight (PTB)is defined as, the birth of an infant less than 37 weeks and extremely low birth weight(ELBW) is birth weight less than 1000 g . Low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and preterm birth have all been associated with poor health in infants and/ or poor health of the mothers and there are several factors that signify the fate of African American infants.
Infant mortality and poor birth outcomes are serious public health issues in the United States that disproportionately affect African American women. In 2006, African American was 2.4 times more likely to die within their first year than white infants. The leading cause of death for African American infants was low birth weight and preterm birth. There are several factors that attribute to LBW and PTB. (Fang, Fu & et el., 2009).
Overview of Research Studies
To further understand the factors that may... [continues]
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