Question 1): How do past and present experiences influence gene expression susceptibility to health disparities? Give an example.
Gene susceptibility can be influenced in many ways. In the past it was said that during the slave trade many died due to dehydration, vomiting, or diarrhea, which are all sicknesses due to the lack of salt intake. The survivors’ genetic makeup was the reason why they survived. The past influence of the slave trade to the survivors’ bodies was like a bottleneck effect. Their bodies learned how to hold on the salt it had. Now this adaption was passed down to later generations. This has been said to be one reason why African Americans are more susceptible to high blood pressure. In the present, genes can go under reconstruction due to diet change, which in turn develops a gene mismatch. A gene mismatch, basically a way of saying the body’s natural adaption to remaining healthy is changed due to what it endures on a daily basis like with diet, will cause chronic diseases or health concerns like hypertension. The behavioral changes make the body genome change which can be transferred to later generations. These past and present examples show how gene expressions can change and become susceptible to health disparities.
Question 2): Please explain the relationship (balance) of 2D6 and 3A4 and their relationship in the ability of a person to metabolize codeine?
The relationship or balance that 2D6 and 3A4 have is that they both help in metabolizing codeine. The enzyme 2D6 has to metabolize codeine first to make it a pain relief and then 3A4 comes in after to make the medicine more effective; as well as exit the body. Both enzymes are more prone in African Americans than Caucasians.
Question 3): THE NEW IMMIGRATION. The last time the United States was ‘a nation of immigrants’ was in the period from 1880 to 1924, when some 25 million newcomers arrived on these shores. We are now in the midst of a new “fourth wave” of American immigration. (a) Name at least two ways in which the current stream of immigration differs decisively from that of the Italian, Greek, and Polish peasants who came here during the early years of the 20th century. (b) The public’s response to the “third wave” was a virulent anti-immigrant racist backlash, which led to the notorious 1924 “National Origins Quota Act”. How likely (or unlikely) do you think it is that a comparable anti-immigrant backlash will develop in our era? Why do you think so? Two ways that the current stream of immigration differs decisively from that of past immigration waves are that immigrants are more non-angelo which makes areas more diverse, and lastly immigrants are becoming younger and younger; leaving them to be less privileged. These two things make today’s society more diverse and yet a hindrance in the same. There is little blue collar levels left in the status quo because the in the coming times an education is needed that is further than high school. I believe that it is very likely that anti-immigrant backlash will develop in this era. I say this because there are already state laws that prohibit immigrants from living in their state. People are becoming more worried that with the rise in immigrants their lively hood will be threatened. If true precautions aren’t taken in making immigrants legal than the backlash will become a reality overnight.
Question 4): How can the documentation of health disparities assist in reducing them?
The documenting of health disparities helps in reducing them because it makes someone take accountability. When you point out the problem of something you leave it out in the open for someone to come along and realize that there really is a problem. When health disparities are swept under the rug or go unnoticed how can they be changed if no one points out that there is a true issue? Documentation of any problem is the beginning step to solving the problem.
Questions 5): Discuss...