September 28, 2014
U.S. Healthcare System Paper
Government Involvement and Funding
The United States health care system is financed privately and publicly. Private coverage is through employers primarily and makes up approximately 54% of total healthcare expenditure. The federal government finances the remaining 46%. ( National Center for Health Statistics, 2009). ( Shi and Singh, 2013 ). Canada has a national insurance system that provides fifty/ fifty cost of sharing for territorial or provincial medical insurance plans. The Canadian system provides free universal coverage with care at the point of contact and is publically funded with tax dollars, even though it is privately ran ("Canadian Health Care," 2004-2007) . The government of both nations are heavily involved in its nations health care on the legislative levels and contribute Medical Professions
Components of the of the U.S. system are physicians, nursing, midwifery personnel, pharmacist, and psychiatrists. Canadian components includes physicians, nursing and midwifery personnel, dentists, environment and public health professionals, and psychiatrist ( World Health Organization,2013 ). In Canada most doctors are in private practice and are paid by a fee for service basis by one public insurance entity. American providers are largely in private practice as well and are paid on a fee for service but reimbursement may come threw a variety of public and private programs.
Coverage and Access
The number of uninsured Americans, those without public or private insurance coverage was an estimated 48.2 million citizens ; which represented 18.2% of the population ( National Center for Health Statistics,2011). Many U.S. residents have limited access to the most basic care ( Anderson et el., 2003). (Shi & Singh, 2013) The U.S. had total expenditure on health per capita ( Intl $, 2012 ) 8,895 Total expenditure on health as % of GDP ( 2012 ) 17.9 ( World Health Organization, 2013).The health care system in Canada is a group of socialized health insurance plans that provides coverage to all of their citizens. With only a few exceptions , all citizens qualify for medical coverage regardless of medical history, income, or standards of living, All insured persons have a reasonable access to facilities for care ("Canadian Health Care, " 2004-2007 ). Canada had total expenditure on health per capita ( Intl $,2012 ) 4,676 Total expenditure on health as % of GDP (2012 ) 10.9 ( World Health Organization, 2013). The federal government in the United states does not provide universal health care to all its citizens. However it has established publically funded programs to provide health care coverage for children, the elderly, and disabled. The Canada Health Care Act requires that all of its citizens be 100% insured without co payments. Both countries have reasonable access to care. For Canada wait times to see doctors or obtain appointments are recognized as one of the most common barriers for access. In the United States health disparities significantly attributes to access.
Health Care Outcomes
In the World Health Organizations 2000 report the U. S. ranked 37th and Canada 30th out of 191 countries in terms of quality.The average life expectancy in the United States male/female is 76/81 years. Canada has a life expectancy male/female 80/84 years. Infant mortality in Canada was 5 (4-5) probability of dying between birth and and one years of age per thousand live births. While the United States had the probability of 6 (5-7) per thousand live births in 2013. (World Health Organization, 2013) . The World Health Report 2000 attempted to compare and rank how health systems performed across the world. The 2000 report was the last publication that attempted any sort of rankings system because many argued...
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