Health Belief Model

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Examine the advantages and disadvantages of the Health Belief Model in explaining Health-related behaviour. Although the importance of preventive health cares, many people do not behave in a manner that will look after their own health. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one relevant theory that claims to predict or control health behaviour .HBM was developed by researchers at US Public Health Service in 1974. Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention (Janz N,Becker MH,1984 and Harrison JA.el .MullerPD,1992 ) in long and short term behaviour, including risk sexual risk of behaviour and transmission of HIV/AID .This study is include theoretical background and as it examine the attributions and criticisms in Health Belief Model (HBM) . Also it is attempt to a review of the general attitudes people about the own health. Becker (1974) described the model as attempt to describe the decision-making process under conditions of threat. One of the attributions is that HBM provided a structure, it presented the following theoretical components and variables: perceptions of the environment, perceived susceptibility and severity to subjective risk of contracting condition or sickness, plus perceived barriers or cost of taking action. In the cues to action is influenced for perceived treat is "stimulus”, which can be "internal" (e. g., perception of symptom )or "external" (e. g., social network , mass communication, personal knowledge of someone affected by the condition) be to trigger the appropriate health behaviour. According to this model, the perceived seriousness of the disease and susceptibility to disease and influence individual's perceived threat of disease. Similarly, perceived benefits and perceived barriers influenced perceptions of the effectiveness of health behaviour. We observe in the figure 1. However, Bandura in theory his Social Cognitive Theory(SCT) (1998) states that perceived threats especially perceived severity have a weak correlation with health action and might even result in avoidance of protective action. . Perceived Severity may also not be as important as perceived susceptibility. Rosestoch,(1974) mentioned the comparison between the components of SBT and the components. Locus of control is not included in this model because it integrated in other components. Recently, HBM was incorporating self-efficacy in order the compete before long-term change behaviour. Also, health motivation is a component of the HBM.(Rosestoch,1974)The Health Belief Model assumes that motivation is a necessary condition for action and that is beneficial to reduce the threat individual's. According Becker,( 1974) The HBM is based on motivation and the perceptual world of the behaving individual. He states the Motivation as the psychological individual’s to act as the desire to maintain a good health and the individual's estimation of the probability of success. A recent survey, Meta-analysis (Harrison .MullerPD,1992 ) indicated that the HBM was capable of predicting 10% of change in behaviour. They suggested more effectiveness then behavioural interventions in prevention cervical cancer. However, Becker stated that is no evidence to indicate whether the improvement of health in an already healthy person. Becker(1974) also claims that the model HBM is relevant to three different kinds of health behaviour for probability of success. The authors of the model claim that the model can be used to explain all three kinds of health-related behaviour. He distinguishes illness behaviour and sick-role behaviour from health behaviour and he makes a clear definition. Illness behaviour as person’s who feel ill to discover what is wrong, and Sick-role behaviour as persons who considered ill with the purpose of getter well. Health behaviour as healthy persons want to detect or prevent any asymptomatic...
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