Within this unit, I will be showing great knowledge of Human Growth and Development through the life stages. I will also be considering careers in Health and Social Care sectors as it assists with understanding the needs of individuals whom are at those different stages of life. This unit will be focusing on life events and the debate surrounding nature/nurture. Explain the potential effects of five different life factors on the development of an individual- P2 This has been attached to this assignment sheet separately. Discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to the development of an individual- M1
What is nature and nurture?
It has been reported that the use of the terms "nature" and "nurture" as a convenient catch-phrase for the roles of heredity and environment in human development can be traced back to 13th century France. Some scientists think that people behave as they do according to genetic predispositions or even "animal instincts." This is known as the "nature" theory of human behaviour. Other scientists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as the "nurture" theory of human behaviour. Fast-growing understanding of the human genome has recently made it clear that both sides are partly right. Nature endows us with inborn abilities and traits; nurture takes these genetic tendencies and moulds them as we learn and mature. End of story, right? Nope. The "nature vs. nurture" debate still rages on, as scientist fight over how much of whom we are is shaped by genes and how much by the environment. (http://genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nurture.htm)
The coding of genes in each cell in us humans determine the different traits that we have, more dominantly on the physical attributes like eye colour, hair colour, ear size, height, and other traits. However, it is still not known whether the more abstract attributes like personality, intelligence, sexual orientation, likes and dislikes are gene-coded in our DNA, too. Nurture
The nurture theory holds that genetic influence over abstract traits may exist; however, the environmental factors are the real origins of our behaviour. This includes the use of conditioning in order to induce a new behaviour to a child, or alter an unlikely behaviour being shown by the child. According to John Watson, one of the strongest psychologists who propose environmental learning as a dominating side in the nature vs. nurture debate once said that he can be able to train a baby randomly chosen in a group of 12 infants, to become any type of specialist Watson wants. He stated that he could train him to be such regardless of the child's potentialities, talents and race. (http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html)
Those on the side of nature maintain development is driven by genes, maturation, innate factors etc. while those on the side of nurture maintain development is driven by the environment, parents, peers, teachers, rewards etc. In terms of the nature side of things in relation to development. It also works for the need to look at brain development after birth, for instance; differentiation, which is the neurons taking on different functions. This is triggered by environmental stimulation and hormones and one needs to be exposed to specific stimuli and specific times. It is undeniable that all learning affects the brain and its structure. Also, one's specific language is not imprinted in their DNA. One must learn it over time, though the ability to learn language in the first place is believed to be innate. One only adapts when faced with different environments but remember it's not a simple case of both. There is continuing effort to discover which aspects of development are affected by what features of nature and nurture and how they interact. Look up also experience-expectant development (exemplified in how they treat strabismus. Also...