London Churchill College
Topics: Psychology for Health & Social Care Practice (Unit 15) BTEC Higher National Diploma (HND) in Health & Social Care QCF Level 4
[A study of Psychology in Health & Social Care]
By: Shah Shamima Begum
To: Suzanne Lutchmun
1.1 Compare different psychological theories of lifespan dependent Answer to the question no 1.1
Developmental theories provide a set of guiding principles and concepts that describe and explain human development. Some developmental theories focus on the formation of a specific quality, such as Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Other developmental theories focus on growth that happens throughout the lifespan, such as Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Grand theories are those comprehensive ideas often proposed by major thinkers such as Sigmund Freud,Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Grand theories of development include psychoanalytic theory, learning theory and cognitive theory. These theories seek to explain much of human behavior, but are often considered outdated and incomplete in the face of modern research. Psychologists and researchers often use grand theories as a basis for exploration, but consider smaller theories and recent research as well. Minitheories
Minitheories describe a small, very specific aspect of development. A minitheory might explain fairly narrow behaviors, such as how self-esteem is formed or early childhood socialization. These theories are often rooted in the ideas established by grand theories, but they do not seek to describe and explain the whole of human behavior and growth. Emergent Theories
Emergent theories are those that have been created fairly recently and are often formed by systematically combining various minitheories. These theories often draw on research and ideas from many different disciplines, but are not yet as broad or far-reaching as grand theories. The sociocultural theory proposed by theorist Lev Vygotsky is a good example of an emergent theory of development.
1.2 Which psychological theories and concepts are related to which life stages Answer to the question no 1.2
Jean Piaget's Background
Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. After receiving his doctoral degree at age 22, Piaget formally began a career that would have a profound impact on both psychology and education. After working with Alfred Binet, Piaget developed an interest in the intellectual development of children. Based upon his observations, he concluded that children were not less intelligent than adults, they simply think differently. Albert Einstein called Piaget's discovery "so simple only a genius could have thought of it." Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations. 2.1 What are the social and biological factors that influence human behaviour? Answer to the question no 2.1
Human behavior includes all patterns of behavior attributable to the human species as a whole and of individual people. It is studied by a range of natural and social sciences such as biology, neuroscience, psychology, anthropology and sociology. Human behavior is influenced by culture and tradition, as well as by human physiology and genetic factors. Collective human behavior is a separate subject of study, mostly concerned with population-scale phenomena such as evolutionary and emergent effects. In their book The Material Life of Human Beings: Artifacts, Behavior and Communication, Andrea R. Miller and Michael Brian Schiffer provide two definitions of human behavior. First, behavior can be defined on a relational basis, as any activity of a person, involving the consequential manipulation of at least one "interactor", taken to mean a physical object in the...
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