2months| 6in1 and PCV:Diphtheria/Tetanus/Whooping Cough(Pertussis)/Hib(haemophi- lus influenza B)/IPV(Inaetivated Polio)/Hepatitis B (6in1),Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)| 2| 4months| 6in1 and Men C: Diphtheria/Tetanus/ Whooping Cough/Hib/Polio/Hepatitis B (6in1), Meningococcal (Men C)| 2| 6months| 6in1 and PCV and Men C: Diphtheria/Tetanus/ Whooping Cough /Hib/ Polio/ Hepatitis B (6in1),Pneumococcal (PCV)+Meningococcal (Men C)| 3| 12months| MMR and PCV: Measles/Mumps/Rubella(MMR)+Pneumococcal (PCV)| 2| 13months| Men C+Hib: Meningococcal C (Men C)+ Haemophilus Influenzae B(Hib)| 1-2| 4-5years| 4in1 and MMR: Diphteria/Tetanus/Whooping Cough/IPV (4in1), Measles/ Mumps/Rubella (MMR)| 2|
A model used to understand the infection process is the chain of infection, a circle of links, each representing a component in the cycle. Each link must be present and in sequential order for an infection to occure. The link are: infectious agent ,reservoir , portal of exit from the reservoir , mode of transmission and portal of entry into susceptible host. Understanding the characteristic of each links provides with methods to support vulnerable child and to prevent the spread of infection . An awareness of this cycle also provides with knowledge of methods of self-protection.
*Infectious Agent: A microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. The greater the organism’s virulence ( ability to grow and multiply ), invasiveness ( ability to enter tissue ), and pathogenicity (ability to cause disease ), the greater the possibility that the organism will cause on infection. Infectious agent are bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites. *Reservoir: A place within which microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. For example , microorganisms thrive in human beings, animals and inanimate objects such as water, table tops and door knobs. *Portal of exit: A place of exit providing a way for a microorganism to leave the reservoir. For example, the microorganisms may leave the reservoir through the nose or mouth when someone sneezes or cough. *Mode of transmission: Method of transfer by which the organism move or is carried from one place to another. The hands may carry bacteria from one person to another. *Portal of entry : An opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. Portal include body orifices, mucus membrane or breaks in the skin. *Susceptible host : A person who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body ,multiplying, and resulting in infection. The host is susceptible to the disease, lacking immunity or physical resistance to overcome the invasion by the pathogenic microorganism.
Infection chain how can be broken?
Diseases such as flu and colds are caused by viruses that infect the nose, throat and lungs. They usually spread from person to person when an infected person coughs or sneezes. They also can spread when a person touches a cold or flu viruses made from another person on a desk, doorknob, desk, phone, or railing. Some viruses and bacteria can live two hours or longer on hard surfaces. If the person then touches his or her eyes, mouth, or nose before washing their hands, viruses or bacteria gain access to the body and infection can occur. Frequent hand washing and practicing other healthy habits can protect everyone from getting or spreading germs at home, work or school. Prevention of Influenza
The most important preventive measure against the flu is to get flu vaccination each fall. The best time for flu vaccines is from mid-October to mid-November. Flu season runs from October to May, and it takes about two weeks after vaccination for the body to create antibodies to protect you. These people should not be vaccinated:
* People with a severe allergy...