Health and Illness
According to the World Health Organisation (1946), "Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
There are six stages ill health as record by Senior and Viveash (1998) The first stage is based on social conditions such as poverty, malnutrition, inadequate housing, pollution, unsafe play areas for children and workplace related dangers. Inequality in health is a term used to show the existence of unfair distribution of socioeconomic, reflected by the notion poorer people has poorer health. (Health forum, 2003) The Black Report (1980) found evidence to support the view that the higher social-class, higher likelihood of better health. The report used infant mortality rates, life expectancy, mental illness and causes of death for people within different social-classes. This indicated that at birth not every person shares an equal chance for a long and healthy life based on their social class. Taylor and Field, (2007) stated that the Black Report was sanctioned by the Acheson Report in 1998. The Acheson Report also recommended that the government should focus on reducing child poverty, income inequalities and poor living conditions. Having low income can also affect a person’s health in midlife. The black report and other studies have demonstrated clear statistic links between mortality, ill health and social class, but these links have been disputed by some sociologist. For example, Illsley (1986, 1987) criticised the black report’s statistics for neglecting absolute improvements in health for the nation, instead of concentrating on relative inequality between the highest and lowest class. Materialist-structural analyses, explains inequalities in health based on deprivation and poverty. The notion is emphasis by difference in living standard and personal circumstances in social groups, which may contribute to difference in health experience. It suggests that...
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