Quality Management Assessment Summary
The "Duke University Medical Center" (2005) website defines “quality improvement as a formal approach to the analysis of performance and systematic efforts for improvement”. Quality improvement programs are found in a variety of industries and are constructed differently. The medical field tends to use quality management to focus on patient and staff safety, reducing medical errors, and avoiding or decreasing morbidity and mortality rates. Health care organizations have been attempting to improve the quality of care for as long as “the nineteenth-century when obstetrician, Ignaz Semmelweis introduced hand washing to medical care, and Florence Nightingale who determined that poor living conditions were a leading cause of death for many soldiers in army hospitals” (Chassin and Loeb, 2011 p. 559).
When discussing the health care industry one of the top organizations that come to the minds of many are hospitals. Hospitals utilize quality management to achieve long and short term goals that improve the quality of care and patient safety. Quality improvement management programs are represented by different titles. They have various concepts, influencing factors, and policies that are needed for the success of the organization. These components will be discussed throughout the paper. Key Concepts and Names of Quality Management
Various terms represent quality management programs. Some examples are Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI), Total Quality Improvement (TQI), Quality Assurance (QA), and Quality Control (QC). The title of the program depends on the organization. According to McLaughlin and Kaluzny (2006); “TQM more often refers to industry-based programs and CQI typically refers to programs designed for clinical settings” (p. 3). Hospitals are clinical settings, so they would title their programs Continuous Quality Improvement or just Quality Improvement. “Quality Assessments are planned systems of review and Quality Control programs are routine systems used to measure and control quality” (Ipcc, 1996). Performance Management programs can be considered quality improvement programs depending on the facility, but are often part of an overall strategic performance plan that is connected with quality management. Key concepts of quality management include improving quality and patient safety; linking quality improvement to strategic plans; preventing and controlling infections; managing private information; analyzing current processes and implementing new processes for improvement; and providing training and education for staff. According to McLaughlin and Kaluzny (2006); “organizations embark on CQI for a variety of reasons, including accreditation requirements, cost control, competition for customers, and pressure from employers and payers” (p. 6). The primary goal for quality management in hospitals is to improve quality of care and patient safety and the representation of providing quality care is achieving and maintaining accreditation standards. Long-term and short-term quality improvement goals
Part of the quality improvement process is to set, work toward, and reach short-term and long-term goals associated with quality improvement. One long-term goal of health care is to have a “high reliability” organization. According to Chassin and Loeb (2011); “high reliability organizations are those that maintain a consistent performance at high levels of safety over a long period of time” (p. 563). This goal begins with assessing the organizations current state and the assessments can be considered a short-term goal for health care organizations. Another long-term goal of health care organizations is to develop a culture of safety. This can be achieved by setting short-term goals such as education and training for staff. “Organizations rely on a particular culture to ensure the performance of improved safety processes over long periods of time and to...