HCS/438 DQ’s
Week 1:
DQ1: What are the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics? According to Bennett (2009), the biggest difference between descriptive and inferential statistics is that descriptive statistics "deals with describing raw data in the form of graphics and sample of statistics" and inferential statistics "deals with estimating population parameters from sample data." This means that inferential statistics would be an estimate because the data would be estimated from sample data rather than using specific data whereas descriptive statistics would be more accurate. An example of descriptive statistics would be trying to find an average of something such as a G.P.A. or your overall grade in a class. Inferential statics can be used to find the effectiveness of a new medication on a target group.

References:
Bennett, J.O., Briggs, W.L., & Trivola, M.F. (2009). Statistical reasoning for everyday life (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

DQ2: What are the four levels of management?
The four levels of management are:
The nominal level of measurement is the simplest level of variables such as hair color or gender. Ordinal level of measurement is data with a ranking or ordering scheme such as a star rating used on movies. Interval level of measurement is when intervals are meaningful but ratios are not such as Fahrenheit temperatures. Ratio level of measurement is when intervals and ratios are both meaningful such as data consisting of distances. Data is classified into four levels of measurement so the information is easy to follow and research. The measurements help researchers keep data organized, this also helps to keep the measurements accurate. EBOOK COLLECTION: Bennett, J.O., Briggs, W.L., & Triola, M.F. (2009). Statistical Reasoning for Everyday Life (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Week 2

DQ1: The mean is a computation of numbers. To find the mean of a series of numbers we first add the...

...Stats Notes Week Two
Describing Data
Mean-average (takes every value into account- Sum of all Values/total number of values=mean
Median-what data is in the middle (exact middle value)?
Mode-what value occurs most frequently in the data?
Interval and Ratio Data
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval-best data
Ratio-best data
Measures of Variation
Outlier-high-end/low-end
Interpret the measures of central tendency-mean, median, mode
Measures of variability-range, standard deviation (SD) =square root of variance is SD
Standard Scores
Zscores-table of standard z scores
Tdistributions-test to see if variable A = variable B interval/ratio data/normal curve either they = each other or they do not-Mean of A/ Mean of B
2 tailed test is easier but yields less information than 1 tail
Explanatory variable-explaining variable
Week 3 Quiz Chapters 4, 5, 6
Study Reading from Week 2
Standard Deviation convert to percentages
Normal Distribution?
Rule for normal distribution. (MEMORIZE) Chapter 5
Normal distribution illustrating the 68%-95%-99.7%
About 68% of the values fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean…
…About 95% of the values fall within 2 standard deviations…
…and 99.7% of the values fall within 3 standard deviations.
* Definition- about 68% (more precisely, 68.3%), or just over two-thirds, of the data points fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean.
* About 95% (
Simple rule-called the 68-95-99.7 gives precise guidelines for the...

...Using Statistical Information
University of Phoenix
Using Statistical Information
Statistics have become critical to the operation of any medical facility. At Samaritan Medical Center (SMC), we routinely look at data to guide our workflow, staffing and patient satisfaction. One of the most commonly referenced statistical databases used at our facility is Press Ganey. Press Ganey utilizes a mailed survey to a random selection of discharged patients to gauge the quality of care given to a given patient, based on their perception of the hospital visit. (Press Ganey, 2010).
The Press Ganey data is generated from a comprehensive patient survey tool, which is divided into multiple areas. This division looks at the patient’s visit by location, provider and individual elements in each area. (Press Ganey, 2010). The resulting data is then presented in different frequency tables. This data encompasses both descriptive and inferential statistics.
A descriptive statistic is used to describe a specific set of measurements. (Bennett, 2009). An example of how Press Ganey uses descriptive statistics would be our facility’s quarterly ranking percentile. This information is presented based upon the overall patient satisfaction rating averaged from the responses received from the patient surveys that are returned in the mail. Thus this data is born out of the inferential statistics gathered in the survey. This result is given in a percentage of satisfaction, which is...

...University of Phoenix
HCS/438 (Statistical Applications )
Quiz#2 - 2-25-2012 - Esmaail Nikjeh
Name: ________________________
True or False Questions; Please select the correct answer. (1 points each)
T F 1. The probability that X takes on a value that is between 3 and inclusive of 4 can be written as P(3 < X ( 4).
T F 2. P(X > x ) + P(X < x) + P(X = x) = 1.
T F 3. If P(X > x) = 0.34 and P(X = x) = 0.10, then P(X ( x) = 0.56.
T F 4- Using the classical viewpoint, the probability of an event happening is defined as the number of favorable outcomes divided by the total number of possible outcomes.
T F 5- The probability assigned to an event that is certain not to occur is 1.0.
Multiple Choices
6- When collecting data, the set of all possible outcomes or values that could occur is called
a. an experiment.
b. the sample space.
c. the random variable.
d. an event.
7- A store manager found that 20 of his 50 ties in stock are striped. What is the probability that a random selection of a tie to show a customer will be striped?
a. 0
b. 0.2
c. 0.4
d. 0.5
8- The minimum value that any probability can be is _________ and the maximum value is _________.
a. 0, 1
b. –1, 0
c. –1, 1
d. 0, (
Use the following information for questions 9 – 12. Please show your works.
Suppose we select 200 adults in a certain...

...1. What three components of public and community health differ from individual health? Describe each component and provide examples from your life.
According to" Public Health Infrastructure - Healthy People" (n.d.), "Public health infrastructure includes 3 key components that enable a public health organization at the Federal, Tribal, State, or local level to deliver public health services. These components are:
• A capable and qualified workforce
• Up-to-date data and information systems
• Public health agencies capable of assessing and responding to public health needs "
These components make it possible to fulfill public health services that include, but are not limited to, monitoring; diagnosis and investigation; information, education, and empowerment; mobilization, enforcement; linking; ensure; evaluate; and research.
Public Heath includes variables such as:
• environmental health (pollutants, air quality, hazardous material)
• water
• waste disposal
Individual Health includes variables including:
• hygiene
• nutrition
• reproductive health
The main goal of public or community health is concentrated on inhibiting disease, extending life, and promoting health by means of organized community exertions. Public health safeguards health as disasters occur, inhibits disease from addictions, contains sexually transmitted diseases, puts up an organization in charge of maintaining the community's food and water safety, and environmental hazards....

...DQ 7-1
What are some of the drawbacks of postponing pregnancy? What are some of the benefits? Identify at least three of each and explain.
There are many disadvantages and advantages of waiting to have children. Many couples take the time to complete their education and establish a secure career path. Working for several years may generate financial security that is needed when providing for a family. With age, hopefully, comes wisdom and maturity that can be beneficial in raising children. Many older couples postpone families to travel and experience risks and opportunities they may otherwise not have when having to raise a family. By waiting it gives you and your spouse time to build a strong foundation for your children. The disadvantages of waiting is (I use me as an example) you might have waited to long. Right now, I was just released from the hospital on Sunday I am 35 and I was just diagnosed with CHF (congested heart failure) and was told that my lungs are very weak. I had 1 miscarriage at the age of 28 my body couldn’t hold the baby and I was recently told that I will never be able to give birth to a child because my heart can not bear it I would probably have a heart attack while giving birth because of the stress your heart is under. Now I wish I wouldn’t have waited because i have always wanted children.
---
There are many drawbacks of postponing pregnancy for women and men. While not everyone will experience these drawbacks, many do. There are many...

...As we analyze the factors contributing to health care costs we must find a solution that provides high-quality care for an aging population. Improvements to modern medicine are prolonging life causing a schism between a health care system oriented towards acute care and the increasing chronic care needs of older adults. Studies do show that health care costs for older Americans account for one third of all national health care expenditures. This being said the average expenditure for health care services for adults 65 and over is nearly four times the cost of those under 65. More significant changes need to be considered given the financial crisis our health care system faces. Health care costs are not solely due to longevity; consider increased utilization, new medical technologies, general inflation, fraud, and waste and abuse. This paper will discuss one article to be used in my final presentation on health care for anaging population.
Data collection procedures
The study on chronic health conditions used a questionnaire presented to study participants by in-person and telephone interview using computer-assisted software. They also used the Statistics Canada Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) for age prevalence patterns and to show how chronic condition prevalence varies by age group. The use of the CCHS survey for historical data and comparisons is very appropriate for this study. The use of a questionnaire, while not ideal, is appropriate for the large...

...What are some communicable diseases or threats currently affecting public and community health in your area?
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local health departments were investigating an outbreak of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections that may be associated with the consumption of frozen berries sold at Costco stores. Additionally, a voluntary recall of the Woodstock Frozen Organic Pomegranate Kernels brand, distributed by Scenic Fruit Company, was announced in late June due to potential risk of HAV contamination. As of mid-August, no illnesses have been linked to the Woodstock product, and as of August 1, 2013, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) has identified four patients associated with the Townsend Farms Organic Antioxidant Blend frozen
berries from Costco . None of these patients have been hospitalized; all have recovered, and there have been no deaths. No other hepatitis A illnesses associated with any of the other products or companies have been reported in Utah. Utah stores that carry the affected products have removed the products from their stores.
References
CDC DVH - Viral Hepatitis Outbreak Information - 2013 Outbreaks. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Outbreaks/2013/A1b-03-31/
Outbreaks > FDA Investigates Multistate Outbreak of Hepatitis A Illnesses Associated with Pomegranate Seeds from Turkish Importer. (n.d.). Retrieved...

...What inpatient and outpatient health care facilities exist in the U.S.? What value do these facilities provide to community health care?
Outpatient care is any health care service provided to a patient who is not admitted to a facility. Outpatient care may be provided in a doctor's office, clinic, the patient's home or hospital outpatient department. Outpatient treatment in a doctor’s office or clinic, often supplemented by medications administered at home, remains the norm for most routine care. Thanks to advances in treatments and technology, many tests and surgical procedures formerly conducted in the hospital can be done in an office setting. Outpatient care also provides the norm for most mental health and chemical dependency treatment. Inpatient care is care given to a patient admitted to a hospital, extended care facility, nursing home or other facility. Long term care is the range of services typically provided at skilled nursing, intermediate-care, personal care or eldercare facilities. Inpatient hospitalization makes sense for major diagnostic, surgical or therapeutic services, where the patient’s condition or response to medication must be closely monitored. In the case of mental health treatment, a hospital stay may make sense if the person is suicidal or self-destructive or poses a threat to others. In the case of chemical dependency or alcohol treatment, a hospital stay may be needed during the detoxification stage to monitor symptoms during withdrawal....