Assignment One - Case study, Hindustan Computers Limited (HCL Technologies) Behaviour modification strategies.
Behavior modification strategies are based on the principals of operant conditioning and reinforcement theory, which take the view that learning is influenced by the environment. The renowned psychologist B. F. Skinner expressed that through operant conditioning, people’s behavior could be shaped by reinforcement or lack thereof. According to Wood, et al, a reinforcer is a stimulus that follows a particular behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur (2010). According to Shane & Travaglione, there are four types of reinforcement consequences such as: positive reinforcement, punishment, negative reinforcement and extinction (2007).
The most widely used reinforcement technique is positive reinforcement, which increases the frequency of certain behaviors through a system of rewards (McShane & Travaglione, 2007). Individuals are more likely to repeat behaviours which create pleasant consequences, or no consequences at all (Wood, et al, 2010). Punishment is the application of an aversive or unpleasant stimulus used as a reinforcement strategy, and could include demotions or loss of staff benefits. According to Wood et al, there is little evidence that punishment changes long term behaviour and therefore should be used prudently (Wood, et al, 2010). Negative reinforcement is a method of training that uses a negative reinforcer. A negative reinforcer is an event or behavior whose reinforcing properties are associated with its removal, aversive stimuli tends to associate some level of discomfort. By eliminating adverse outcomes, preventative behaviours become more likely to occur again in the future. For example, getting up early to avoid being caught in traffic in the morning to remove the likelihood of being late to work. The complete removal of reinforcement is called extinction (Wood, et al, 2010)....
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