Hazop Analysis in the Chemical and Process Industry

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LITERATURE REVIEW:
HAZOP ANALYSIS IN THE CHEMICAL AND PROCESS INDUSTRY
by,
NWOJI Edozie
Abstract
This literature review critically examines Hazard and operability (HAZOP) studies, which are a leading process safety technique used widely in industries like the chemical and process industry. It encompasses not only the detailed analysis of all possible causes/failure of a plant‟s operation, but also its day to day running issues by looking at the changes and variations from initial design conditions. This review looks at the origins, the adaptability to different processes, and the automation of the methodology. Keywords: HAZOP, Process Hazard Analysis,, Operability , Chemical, Review Table of Contents

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Types of HAZOP ................................................................................................................................. 3 Scope of Review .............................................................................................................................. 3 Origins .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Automation of the methodology .......................................................................................................... 6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................ 7 List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9 References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10 1 1. Introduction

In the words of Jones (1992:4), a “hazard is a physical situation with a potential for human injury, damage to property, damage to the environment or some combination of these”. These hazards have several consequences ranging from death, illness, injury, damage to a person, property or plant, production and product loss. Hazards could either be;-

 Chemical: Toxic spillages or leakages
 Electrical: High voltage, Electrostatic phenomena
 Thermodynamics: High pressure or temperature
 Mechanical: Force strain or stress, High pressure fluid injection.  Health: Noise and pollution
 Ergonomics: Poor lighting, poor posture, frequent lifting  Environmental: Seismic activity, avalanche and volcanic eruptions.

All hazards cause accidents and these are not desirable in the chemical and process industry and must be eliminated to the barest minimum. Without a structured methodology, these hazards might be overlooked and not identified. According to the updated SEVESCO directive of 1996, all European Union (EU) member countries should work towards averting accidents involving harmful substances , man and the environment in a harmonious, capable and vigorous way. 2 This directive further emphasizes the need to take on and embrace guidelines that establishes consistently those hazards that occur from routine plant operation and look at their magnitude and propensity to occur. Several Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) techniques have been developed over the years like Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) and Task Analysis (Wells,2006)., but this review concentrates and highlights one of the most important techniques (HAZOP). Hazard and Operability Studies (HAZOP) is a well thought out, planned and organized study of a process plant usually carried out by a team of multi - disciplinary professionals. The team carries out a point to point (often called node) investigation of a plant design. This investigation tends to find and identify possible causes of risk to plant personnel or equipment, and averts those causes that go against smooth plant operation. If the safeguards in place are insufficient to solve these...
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