Havard Referencing System

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Harvard Referencing

© Learning Services, Edge Hill University, 2010

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Section 1: General Questions
Harvard Referencing Citing Bibliography Reference list Bibliographic details More than one book by the same author in the bibliography More than one report from the same author, written in one year Appendix Plagiarism Avoiding plagiarism Quoting Referencing a long quote Quoting parts from a long paragraph Paraphrasing Ibid Op.cit. Et al. Edition Author who cites another author (secondary citation) Summarising several authors Bibliographic management tools

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Section 2: Hard copy texts: books, journals, reports, etc.
Conventions for titles Book with one author Book with two authors Book with three or more authors Chapter in an edited book Fictitious author Book review Translated book Foreign language book Diary or book of letters Dictionary Encyclopaedia Journal Article Art image from a book Newspaper article Report Government report Act of Parliament Exhibition catalogue Leaflet Pamphlet PhD or dissertation Conference paper Interview (face-to-face) Letter

Section 3: Electronic Resources
Website E-book Book review (online) Journal (online) Newspaper (online) Dictionary (online) Encyclopaedia (online) Radio programme Radio programme (online) Podcast Television programme Television programme (online) Teachers TV Film (television or cinema) DVD Video CD Government report (online) Act of Parliament (online) Telephone interview Email Facebook Blog You Tube MySpace Slideshare Online image gallery

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Section 1: General Questions
Please note - you will find more detailed explanations of what is being referenced, for example author, publisher and so on, in the FAQs on Learning Services’ web pages. What is Harvard referencing? Referencing is the acknowledgment of all the sources you have cited in your assignments, whether you have quoted directly or paraphrased. The Harvard system uses the author – date method; the references in the assignment text are given in brackets and the list of sources is given in a bibliography (or reference list), attached to the assignment. Most of the examples we have given are direct quotes. There is an example of paraphrasing on page 9. Referencing enables you to: • • • show you have researched your topic, for example, articles, books, reference works and electronic resources; direct your readers to the information you have used; avoid plagiarism.

What is citing? Citing is a generic term, used for when you refer to any source, either to give an example or to back up an argument. Example: According to Cowley (2004:8) ‘discussion really does play an absolutely vital part in the development of thinking’. What is a bibliography? Traditionally, a bibliography is a list of all the sources you have cited in your assignment, in alphabetical order, with the author’s surname preceding the first name, plus a separate list of sources that have influenced your learning for the assignment but you haven’t cited from. At Edge Hill, many departments use the term to only include sources you have cited from in your assignment. You should check your course handbook for clarity on this. The bibliography is attached to the back of your assignment. Where there is no...
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