(Suggested writing time--40 minutes)
Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1- . (The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages.
This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:
Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents. Uses all or all but one of the documents.
Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually. Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the author's points of view. Suggests additional perspective(s)/ document(s) that are needed in order to answer the question more fully. Include global historical context
You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.
Using the documents, analyze the causes and results of the Haitian Revolution. Consider the social, economic and political issues prior to the revolution and the legacy of the revolution.
Source: French Code Noir (Black Code) King Louis XIV in 1685 –remained in force until 1848 French legal code for the regulation of slavery in the West Indies, including sugar plantations in Saint Domingue
“2. All slaves in our islands shall be baptized and instructed in the Catholic religion. Masters shall be obliged to provide each week to their slaves of eighteen years or older for food 2 1/ 2 measures of cassava flour, or three cassavas weighing 2 ½ pounds each at least, or some equivalent provisions, with 2 pounds of saltbeef or three pounds of fish… It is prohibited to give slaves brandy or fermented cane juice to take the place of rations mentioned in the previous article. We grant to those who have been emancipated the same rights, privileges, and immunities enjoyed by people born free; wishing that the benefits of acquired liberty may produce in them, as much for their persons as for their goods, the same effects that the good fortune of natural liberty offers to our other subjects.”
Source: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen , 1789 Marquis de Lafayette (and Thomas Jefferson) “ Men are born and remain free and equal in rights; social distinctions may be based only upon general usefulness.” “The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man; these rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.” “The source of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation; no group, no individual may exercise authority not emanating expressly therefrom.” “ Since property is a sacred and inviolate right, no one may be deprived thereof unless a legally established public necessity obviously requires it, and upon condition of a just and previous indemnity.”
Jean-Marie d’Augy, white president of the colonial Assembly in Saint- Domingue 1790 at the occasion of the torture and execution of the mulatto leader, Vincent Oge following his attempts to bring the new rights of man from France to Haiti.
“We have not brought half a million slaves from the coasts of Africa to make them into French citizens.”
Source: Mark Almond, 20th century historian Revolution 500 Years of struggle for Change p. 85
“ In May 1802, Napoleon’s forces tried to re-establish slavery. To make matters worse, the French Commander kidnapped Toussaint and deported him back to France. The effect was to enrage the black majority and provoke an even greater rebellion. By now black soldiers had gained experience in organizing an army. The French were at a disadvantage” they were more susceptible to disease (particularly yellow fever) than their opponents, and reinforcements were difficult to...