Hate Crimes

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Hate Crimes in American Society in the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries Sample Student
Research Paper
Project of Sociology
Table of Contents
I. Thesis Statement…………………………………………….………….....Page 4 II. Introduction and Summary………………………………….………….....Page 4 III. Literature Review………………………………………………………....Page 6 IV. Methods………………………………………………………….......….. Page 16 V. Socio-Historical Analysis………………………………………………. .Page 18 A. 20th Century

1. Lynching
2. Ku Klux Klan
3. Rodney King and the Los Angeles Riots
4. Matthew Shepard
B. 21st Century
1. Post 9/11
2. Jena Six
VI. Cause and Effect Analysis…………………………………………… ....Page 24 A. Causes
1. Prejudice
a. Stereotypes
b. Scapegoats
c. Presence of Hate in American Culture
d. Need for Status and Power
2. Reasons for Crime
a. Sending a Message
b. Thrill Seeking
c. Defensive
B. Effects
1. Psychological Trauma
2. Undo Social Progress
3. Community Unrest
4. Threat of Retaliation
VII. Descriptive Analysis……………………………………………….........Page 30 A. Description of Victims
1. Bias against a Particular Race
2. Bias against a Particular Religion
3. Bias against a Particular Sexual Orientation
4. Bias against a Particular Ethnicity/National Origin
5. Bias against a Disability
B. Description of Offenses and Offenders This must be your new section? VIII. Comparative Analysis…………………………………………………. Page 36 A. United States Justice Department Definition of Hate Crime B. International Justice Systems Definition of Hate Crime

IX. Expectations for the Future……………………………………………. .Page 38 X. Recommendations of Social Policy……………………………………. Page 38 XI. Summary and Conclusion…………………………………………… Page 403 Appendix H1: HIC Protocol Form………………………… Page 42 Appendix H2: HIC Informed Consent Form…………….........Page 45 Appendix S: Survey…………………………………………Page 47 XII. Bibliography……………………………………………………………Page 50 Excellent!4

Thesis Statement
This paper will examine the nature of hate crimes in America in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A socio-historical analysis will provide examples of hate crimes in American history. Hate crimes will also be analyzed using a cause and effect analysis. A descriptive analysis will offer statistics of hate crimes in the United States based on category of victims and will look at each category. This paper will explore the reasons why hate crimes will most likely continue to exist in our society and will look at possible social policies that could be implemented to prevent hate crimes, assist the victims, and deal with the issues that make perpetrators commit the crimes. Introduction and Summary

Hate crimes have long been a problem in American society. This paper will look at some incidences of hate crimes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In the early twentieth century, lynching was a common form of hate crime in America, especially in the South. Such hate was further advanced by groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. Later in the twentieth century, the brutal arrest of Rodney King, an African American, and the riots that followed in Los Angeles, California in 1992 brought the problem of hate crimes back into public eye. Good—you added in the date. The 1998 murder of Matthew Shepard, who was gay, also increased awareness and concern about hate crimes. Hate crimes in the twenty-first century include attacks on Middle Easterners following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. The recent trials of young black men in Jena, Louisiana in 2006 have also served to prove that racial tensions still exist, as do hate and, thus, hate crimes.5

Prejudice causes the extreme bias that is sometimes demonstrated by hate crimes. Prejudices may be created by stereotypes, the process of scapegoating, one’s need for status and power, or the presence of bias in much of American culture. Hate crimes themselves may be for the thrill of the offender, to send a message to members of...
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