The types of surface markings Baru would be looking for would be depression and openings. These consist of foramen, fossa, meatus, fissure, sulcus, process, condyle, head, crest, epicondyle, line, spineous process, tubercle, trochanter, and tuberosity.
They were surprised when they found the metopic suture on an adult’s skull because this suture should have went away during childhood. This suture is present during adolescence when the frontal bone is two separate bones.
The structures that may have been missing in an excavated skull would be the perpendicular plate, vomer, and middle and inferior nasal concha.
Hassan can tell the age of the remains by sutures such as coronal, safittal, lambdoid and squamous.
A male’s vertebral column is on average about 28 inches, where as a female’s would be around 24 inches.
The bone most likely affected by strangulation other than the cervical vertebrae would be the hyoid bone.
You could compare size and shape of the vertebrae. Cervical vertebrae are smaller bodied, have slender and often bifid spinous processes, and one vertebral and two transverse foramina. Thoracic have larger bodies, one vertebral foramina, and lond and fairly thick spinous processes. Lumbar are the largest bodied vertebrae, have one vertebral foramina, and short and blunt spinous processes.
Just as with most any cells of the human body when someone is diseased and begin to die the cells of specific organs begin to wither and die. If a diseased person is experiencing a lack of calcium or the body is redirecting calcium to help fight the disease the bones will show this. This is applicable to many other vital nutrients used by bones and the rest of the body.
The spinal cord would be the most prominent cause of death if any cervical vertebrae were damaged. The spinal cord connects to the brain stem and is the direct communication from the brain to all functions of the body.
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