There are many variations of the Harvard referencing style. This leaflet is based on the AGPS Style Manual (6th edn), 2002. It is advisable to check with each lecturer as to which variation they require you to use and to follow that advice for the work submitted to that lecturer.
What is a referencing system?
A referencing system is a standardised way of informing readers of the sources of information, ideas, graphics etc. that are used in any given work, e.g. your assignment. There are a number of different referencing systems, but those most commonly used at Flinders University are: Harvard (an author-date system) APA (American Psychological Association, also an author-date system) The Note system (including footnotes and endnotes) Author-date systems use the authors’ surnames and the year of publication within the text of a work to refer to a detailed list of full references at the end of the work. The Note system uses numbers within the text to refer to details either at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the work (endnotes). See SLC brochures on the APA and Note systems for details on these systems.
Referencing and academic integrity
The use of a referencing system to acknowledge other people’s work, ideas and expression is integral to academic writing and academic integrity. See SLC leaflets on Academic Integrity or the 'Academic Integrity at Flinders' website (available from your topic listing in Flinders Learning Online). Referencing also shows readers: that you have read widely who and what you have read how you have interpreted your reading in forming your ideas whether you are up to date with current discussion and findings in your field. In addition, accurate referencing enables readers to locate your sources if they are interested in following up on the topic.
There are 2 parts to the Harvard referencing system:
1. The in-text reference 2. The reference list Each in-text reference must refer to an entry in the reference list, i.e. if you have referred to nine different works in your text, the reference list must have nine entries.
The In-text Referencing
In-text referencing is based on the authors’ surnames, the year of publication and the page number(s) of the discussion or idea you are referring to. Use p. for one page, pp. for more than one page.
Smith (2005, p. 45) argues that ‘the relative seriousness of the two kinds of errors differs from situation to situation’. It has been argued that ‘the relative seriousness of the two kinds of errors differs from situation to situation' (Smith 2005, p. 45). PAGE 1 OF 6
Harvard Referencing © SLC 5/2012
If you paraphrase material (express someone else’s ideas in your own words) you must include a page number and make it clear that you are referring to someone else's work:
A recent study (Jones & Chan 2002, pp. 30-31) has shown...
Then the authors' names are incorporated within the text, you must write the word
and instead of the symbol &:
Jones and Chan (2002, pp. 30-31) have shown that…
Works with four or more authors Include only the surname of the first author and the abbreviation et al. (meaning 'and the others'). There is no longer any need to write all the authors’ names the first time you refer to their work in your text, though all the names should appear in your final reference list. In the following example, the citation refers to work done by Lim, Smith, Brown and Nguyen:
A recent study (Lim et al. 2006) has shown...
Two or more authors with the same surname Distinguish between them by using the authors' initials or full names:
A recent study by CL Jones (2005) has shown ... but A Jones (2006) has suggested...
Secondary references (when one author discusses another author’s work) Both sources must be acknowledged in your in-text reference. However, only the book or article you actually used (the secondary reference) should appear in...