Citing and Referencing Explained Citing Reference Why cite anyway? Bibliography The Harvard System Citing authors in the text Secondary sources Referencing Referencing a book One Author Two Authors Three Authors Multiple Authors Chapter within a book Journal article Journal article – multiple authors Newspaper article Other Examples Theses or Dissertation Conference Audio-visual material Maps Electronic Sources E-books E-journals Website Web pages Please note this is a general guide 2 2 2 2 2 3 3–4 4 5–9 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7–8 7 7 8 8 8 – 10 8 9 9 10
Citing and Referencing Explained
Citing Citing is acknowledging in the text of your work the sources you have used. The most common method of citation and referencing is the Harvard System.
However, in some areas an alternative system is used. Please contact your tutor for advice on which system they prefer you to use. Reference A reference is the list of the material you have cited in your text and it must be set out in such a way so that the reader can locate the sources you have consulted.
Why cite anyway? • • • You should acknowledge sources consulted for the production of written work otherwise you are guilty of plagiarism It allows readers to locate the sources you have read It is an important part of the presentation of written work
Bibliography A bibliography is a list of all the material you have read but not necessarily included in your list of references.
(Citing & Ref/ CB/ 08.2007)
Citing authors in the text
In this system you write the author/originators name and the year of publication of the document in brackets after each reference in the text. Example: The research shows (Wheeler 1961, p.5).......
If the authors name occurs naturally in the text then only the year of publication is given in brackets Example: Wheeler (1961, p.7) illustrates in his study
If two or more documents have the same author in the same year then they should be distinguished by lower case letters after the year of publication Example: Wheeler (1961a, p.5) describes this process in his study. In a second paper Wheeler (1961b, p.8) goes on further to explain.....
If there are 2 or up to 3 authors, the surname of all must be given. Example: Wheeler, Smith and Jones (1993, p.15) have proposed that.....
If there are more than three authors the surname of the first author is given followed by “et al” (Latin term meaning “and others”) Example: Wheeler et al. (1997, p. 3) believes.......
If there is no author then “Anon” should be used to indicate that the source is unknown. Example: A recent article (Anon. 2001) states that.........
If a reference is to a newspaper where no author is given the name of the newspaper can be used Example: The Independent (1999) states that......
If you refer to a source quoted in another source you cite both in the text. Example: A study by Wheeler (1995 cited in Wood 1998, p.42) argues that...... You should only list Wood in your list of references, as this is the book/article you have actually read.
Citing Electronic Resources in the text Please note: Use of the URL within the body of the text is not usually acceptable. Should only be listed in the reference list
In the Harvard system the corresponding references to citations in the text are arranged at the end of a piece of work in alphabetical order of authors’ surname, subdivided if necessary by year and letter.
How to reference a book
Author/s editor/s (Surname (comma) followed by initials) (full stop) Year of publication (in brackets) Title of book (either bold, italics or underlined) (full stop) Edition (if not the first) Place of publication (colon) Publisher (full stop) [Add series number and volume number if appropriate]
One Author Example: Hayes, N. (1998) Psychology: an introduction. 3rd edn. Harlow: Longman. Two Authors Example: Winter,...