1) What is Citation?
Acknowledging the source from which we have taken particular information is known as citation. There are three forms of citation:
a) DIRECT QUOTATION – In English, quotation marks are “and”. b) PARAPHRASING – Restate the same thing, in your own words, steering far clear of the original. c) SUMMARISING – Restate the same thing, in your own words, and in as few words as possible.
There are several proper ways to recognize someone’s work, and these are called referencing or citation styles. We will use the Harvard Style.
2) What information needs to be cited?
The golden rule is: if you know you’ve read or seen information somewhere, it needs a reference.
Therefore, we must cite
1. Any facts taken from sources, regardless of whether they are common (or general) knowledge 2. Any research done by you or by someone else (experiments, surveys), and any material owned by another person (such as photos or videos) 3. Any information gained from interviews.
3) When is citation not necessary?
Apart from opinions, the following information does not need to be acknowledged: 1. Very common knowledge, but this is determined by the audience and the context. a) mathematical and general computing formulas
b) news headlines (unless you are actually referring to a news article in a particular publication)
GUIDELINES FOR HARVARD CITATION AND REFERENCING
Where to put the reference in your essay?
A) AS YOU WRITE – IN-TEXT CITATIONS:
“Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of direct quotations in our essay.” (Lester 1976, pp. 46- 47.)
Lester (1976) argued that we should not use directly quoted passages in our academic writing too often.
B) IN THE REFERENCE LIST:
All the references i.e. sources, mentioned in your work have to be included in a list at the end of your essay- the reference list.
Bernstein, T 1965, The careful writer: A modern guide to English usage (3rd ed.), Atheneum Press, New York
HOW TO WRITE REFERENCES
Some general guidelines
• Follow the examples. Be precise when it comes to order, punctuation, and capitalization. Be consistent with regard to abbreviations, full stops and spacing. • When in doubt: Use your common sense. Or refer to your Mentor.
1. IN – TEXT CITATIONS OR REFERENCES
We normally use the first word in the Reference List citation to mention the reference in the text. Sometimes this is the author, editors, sometimes a title e.g. for web pages with no author. If the title is long, just use the first few words. Examples are given in the table on the next page. What are the rules for in-text references?
• We do not need to give exact page numbers for paraphrases and summaries, but can do so if the page numbers might be useful to the reader. For in-text citations - What if you actually want to mention the “who said it” within a sentence?
For paraphrases and summaries:
Alternative a) Jones (1986) stated that the time has come for new allied health programs. Alternative b) The time has come for new allied health programs (Jones 1986).
Alternative a) "... the time is now" (Frank 1988, p. 6)
Alternative b) Frank (1988) stated "... the time is now" (p. 6).
2. REFERENCES IN THE REFERENCE LIST
• Title: References - centered at top of page • Arrangement: Alphabetize by author or by the first significant word of the title • Capitalization: - Capitalize the first word and the first word after a colon in the title of a book, a chapter, or an article. All other words in titles are in lower case letters, except for proper nouns. - All major words in the name of the publishing company are capitalized, but be brief. - For journal and magazine titles, capitalize all major words. - Books and journals with more than one...