Harassment

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Harassment (/həˈræsmənt/ or /ˈhærəsmənt/) covers a wide range of behaviours of an offensive nature. It is commonly understood as behaviour intended to disturb or upset, and it is characteristically repetitive. In the legal sense, it is intentional behaviour which is found threatening or disturbing. Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances, typically in the workplace, where the consequences of refusing are potentially very disadvantageous to the victim Sexual Harassment

It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person’s sex. Harassment can include “sexual harassment” or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature. Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a person’s sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive comments about women in general. Both victim and the harasser can be either a woman or a man, and the victim and harasser can be the same sex. Although the law doesn’t prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very serious, harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted). The harasser can be the victim's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer. The public health significance of physical abuse in childhood is manifested by its incidence and prevalence1,2 and also its long-term psychological and physical health consequences. In its most recent report, the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families estimated physical abuse incidence rates for boys to be 2.1 per 1000 and for girls to be 2.2 per 1000.1 In terms of prevalence, national data reveal that approximately 1.5 million children have experienced physical abuse.2 Psychological and behavioral problems that have been found to be associated with physical abuse in childhood include poorer academic and intellectual outcomes, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, substance abuse, personality disorders, suicidal behavior, and aggression.3,15 Physical health problems associated with physical abuse in childhood include gastrointestinal problems, greater physical functional disability, more physical health symptoms, and more hospitalizations.16–20 According to the National Research Council’s Panel on Child Abuse and Neglect, there is little research on gender differences in the consequences of child abuse. The panel recommended that research be conducted to determine whether there are differential consequences of child abuse for boys and girls.21The lack of research on gender differences is likely because most studies on the consequences of child maltreatment have focused on females.22 Studies that have included males have typically examined the consequences of maltreatment for males and females separately and have not tested for the interaction between gender and maltreatment, or compared magnitudes of associations across gender. Further, most of these studies have not focused on the effects of physical abuse per se, but rather on maltreatment in general.10,15,23–25 Studies that have examined gender differences in the long-term consequences of child abuse have produced mixed findings. Some of these studies have focused on sexual abuse,26 some on physical abuse,27 and some on maltreatment in general.15,24 Although findings have been somewhat inconsistent, by and large, the results suggest that females are more affected by child abuse than males. For example, although both men and women who had experienced physical abuse in childhood were more likely to have higher lifetime prevalence rates of anxiety disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence than their nonabused...
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