From roughly 2300 BC until 1500 BC the Indus Valley civilizations thrived in what is now modern-day Pakistan. The first excavations of the Indus Valley, began by archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, began in 1921-1922 and uncovered important information of the highly complex civilization. One of the main cities was called Harappa.
Harappa, like Mohenjo-Daro, grew along the Indus River. It came into existence earlier than and lasted longer than the southern city of Mohenjo-Daro. It was well known for its surprisingly advanced town planning. Each town and city was structured like a grid with wide streets which ran perpendicular to one another. Between the large streets were smaller connecting lanes, which were lined with houses. The streets were anywhere from 13 to 30 feet wide and the lanes were between 3.5 to 7 feet wide. The city of Harappa was oriented toward true north, with its main streets running from north to west and the connecting streets running east to west. This city plan demonstrates the civilization’s early knowledge of astronomy. Harappa was divided into two sections- upper town and lower town. Upper town consisted of a well-fortified citadel which sat on a 40-foot-high mound with a 45-foot-thick brick embankment. The citadel served as a community center in times of peace and a fortress in times of trouble. The existence of the citadel (along with the well planned city) suggested a structured government.
Near the citadel was the Great Bath, excavated by Sir John Marshall that was constructed in a series of five different layers that made the bath so water-tight that even to this day it holds water. The bath, a key feature of Harappa, was used in festivals and religious ceremonies. On the sides were dressing rooms.
There were other public structures in the city. One such public structure was the town hall in the citadel. Like modern day town halls, it was a meeting place for citizens and the city government officials of the city of Harappa....
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