Haplogroup H

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What mutations are associated with haplogroup H?
As the ancestors of haplogroup H migrated from the Middle East to India 45,000 years ago, the mutations that became associated with the haplogroup are M168, M89, and M69. M69 is also commonly known as the, “Indian marker,” but M69 can also be born in Southern Central Asia. M89 on the other hand first appeared around 45,000 years ago in northeastern Africa. “In modern day this mutation (marker) is found in more than 90 percent of all non-African men” (Wells 211-212).

What characteristics separate haplogroup H from any other group?
Haplogroup H is very unique and has several characteristics that make it stand out. Haplogroup H is one of the most dominant family haplogroups in all of Europe, representing about 40% of the mtDNA gene pool in various areas of Europe. Among the mtDNA haplogroups of Europe, haplogroup H displays two unique features: an extremely wide geographic distribution and a very high frequency in most of its range. Haplogroup H is also sub-divided into several sub haplogroups all the way from H1-H15 and this confirms that the Franco-Cantabarian glacial refuge was a major source for European’s gene pool (via http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182122/pdf/AJHGv75p910.pdf). “Geneticists believe that haplogroup H might have originated somewhere along the migration route of peoples carrying the M20 Y-chromosome marker (Wells 212). Haplogroup H plays a key role in evolution and stands out from the rest.

The migration of haplogroup H over time.

Is there a counterpart to haplogroup H?

Haplogroup H’s counterpart is mtDNA, and mtDNA stands for mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This counterpart is maternal, tracked through females, and it is the female’s equivalent to the males Y-chromosome. Haplogroup H is one of the most affluent and dominant mtDNA haplogroups in all of Europe. With this mtDNA scientists are able to evaluate the forensics in formativeness of mtDNA...
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