Handout the American Civil War

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Handout “A House Divided”: Towards the American Civil War, 1831-1861

Causes of the American Civil War
1.social-economic differences between North and South
2.regional conflict about over slavery in unorganized territories 3.break-up of national political party system; emergence of new party system based on region (i.e. North-South) (see also handout week 4) 4.ideological and cultural polarisation between North and South

Constitution: three-fifth’s clause; fugitive slave clause; slave trade clause

1820 Missouri Compromise:
- Missouri admitted as slave state
- Maine created as free state
- Line of 1820 (36 .30 )

1828-1833 - South Carolina tariff nullification crisis
1831-1860 – antislavery activism (1831: William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator) 1831 slave rebellion led by Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia 1845 annexation of Texas
1846-1848 Mexican War
1848U.S. victory over Mexico; territorial expansion (California, Utah and New Mexico territories) 1850 Compromise of 1850:
- California admitted as free state
- "popular sovereignty" in New Mexico and Utah
- slave trade prohibited in District of Columbia (Washington, DC)
- Fugitive Slave Act
1852 Book publication Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act ("Bleeding Kansas")
1854 splitting of Whig; foundation Republican Party ("Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men") and American ("Know Nothing") Party 1857 Dred Scott Decision of the U.S. Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Taney (pro-slavery) 1859 raid on Harpers Ferry (John Brown)

1860 Democratic Party splits into two (North vs. South)
November 1860 - Lincoln (Republican Party) elected president December 1860 - South Carolina secedes from the union
1861- January: secession of Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas - February: adoption Confederate Constitution and creation of Confederate States of America (South); pres. Jefferson Davis; capital: Montgomery,...
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