The massively extensive classical empires of Imperial Rome (31BCE-476CE) and Han China (206BCE-220CE) were extremely influential when it came to the world around them. In essence, the two empires were virtually the same in terms of political structure and military protocols, yet greatly different in the area of religious tolerance.
Both Han China and Imperial Rome had a political system structure consisting of a sovereign emperor who made executive, almost dictator-like, decisions and directed the affairs of the empire. However, in both empires, emperors relied on regional governors to regulated affairs in their respective regions due to the fact that both empires were so massive and consisted of an enormous population. These leaders would also collect a tax that was imposed on free peasants of the empire. In both empires, the emperor was seen as a god-like figure, for example the Mandate of Heaven in Han China was used to persuade the citizens that the emperor was a direct link to the gods. Both Han China and Imperial Rome used religion as a helper in political culture. Confucianism was enforced by the government and promoted obedience, loyalty, and reverence to one’s social superiors. In Rome, Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 312CE, and used the church as a sort of guidance/advisor. Both civilizations established a type of “civil service” based on educated members of the middle class. As far as military protocols go, both militaries worked extensively on projects for the empire such as roads to expedite troop movement. Late in the histories of both empires, foreign soldiers were enlisted in the military due to a drop in population of plagues hit the society. The Roman’s enlisted the help of the Germanic tribes while the Hans enlisted the help of the Mongols. These “mercenary” soldiers lacked greatly in motivation and pride. Both civilizations enlisted the help of soldiers of the people who were invading them. The... [continues]
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