Hair coloring is both the science and art of changing the color of hair. Hair
coloring includes the processes of adding artificial pigment to the natural hair color,
adding artificial pigment to previously colored hair, adding artificial pigment to
prelightened hair, and diffusing natural pigment and adding artifical pigment in one step.
There are many varities of hair coloring and even more of a variety in the ways to instill
Hair lightening involves the diffusing of the natural pigment or artificial color of
the hair. Attained skill in hair coloring is accomplished through continouos practice and
study, just like in any other skillful practice. The princible reasons for the coloring or
lightening of hair are to restore gray hair to its original color, to change the natural color
of hair to a more attractive shade, to restore hair to its natural color, to create decrative
effects, and to enhance or create highlights.
A successful cosmotoligist should understand the composition of the hair and
sclap, the proper selection and application of coloring and lightening products, and the
chemical reaction of tints and lighteners on hair. It is important that cosmotologists
understand the theory of color pigment before applying hair coloring prouducts to
In hair there is a substance called melanin which is the basis of the hair's natural
color. Melanin is the type of pigment found in the cortex of the hair shaft. The size,
amount, and distrabution of melanin determines the natural color of hair. Greater
amounts of large melanin molecules distrabuted througout the cortex create dark hair
colors. Lessr amounts of smaller melanin molecules distrabuted throught the cortex
create light hair color.
Primary colors are basics of true colors that are not created by combining other
colors. The three primary colors are: blue, red, and yellow. All other colors are created
by some combonation of the primaries. Secondary colors are created by mixing equal
amounts of two primary colors. Mixing equal parts yellow and blue makes green, mixing
equal parts blue and red male voilet, and mixing equal parts red and yellow make orange.
Green, orange and violet are the secondary colors and play a vital role in the coloring of
hair. The tertiary colors are created by mixing equal amounts of one primary color with
one of its ajacent secondary colors. The tertiary colors are red-violet, blue-violet, blue-
green, yellow-green, yellow-orange, and red-orange. Theese colors also lplay a vital role
in the coloring of hair.
There are a special group of colors desegnated by the cosmo-industry to be
complementary colors. Complementary colors are always composed of a primary and
secondary color. They are the mixing of two colors which are directaly across from each
other on the color wheel. The color wheel is a chart which is round and has the colors
directly next ot the colors which compose it and the color oppisite it is its complement
i.e. green is next to yellow and complementary to red. Any color, in this case green, when
mixed with its complement, in this case red, nutralizes itself and the color brown, which
is also referred to as drab and ash, will always be created. This is key in the coloring of
hair, especially if someone wants brow hair or the first attempt is botched.
Tone is another important aspect of color. Tone refers to wether a color is warm
or cool. The warm colors which are pimarely used for highlighting are red, orange, and...