You are currently in your calculus class, and you are concentrating solely on the information your professor is teaching you. Suddenly a loud, banging noise disrupts your once undivided attention. After looking up at the sound of the banging, you see that it is only a worker hammering as he installs a new bulletin board in the hallway. You would likely return your attention to the calculus lecture. If the banging noise continues, your tendency to look up at the noise in the hallway would steadily decrease. This decrease is called habituation. Habituation occurs solely on instinct for safety among humans and animals. This natural event includes the orienting reflex, habituation itself, and dishabituation.

Habituation begins with an orienting reflex. Orienting reflexes occur when we stop what we are doing to orient our senses in the direction of an unexpected disturbance. In the example, the orienting reflex is your first reaction to the noise. If you are like most people, you would immediately stop listening to the lecture and turn your head in the direction of the noise. What is the benefit of automatically paying attention to the disturbance? Self-protection would be the answer. Orienting reflexes allow us to evaluate our environments for potential harm.

The benefit of having orienting reflexes is limited, though. Your orienting reflex diminishes over time. After you have established that the noise in the hallway is not threatening, there is no reason to keep looking up and habituation occurs. If your orienting reflex continued, you would miss part of your calculus lecture as well as waste energy that could be spent more usefully. To get a feel for the value of habituation, imagine what life would be like if you could not habituate. Without habituation, you would reflexively respond to every sight, sound, touch, and smell you encountered every time you encountered it.

You can also stop habituating in certain circumstances. This is called...

...from
expecting to make new discoveries
(E) fails to consider the consequences of a flawed
research methodology
Passage 2
My first day observing a community of forest chimpanzees showed me a richer and more satisfying world
than I had imagined. I suddenly recognized why I, a nonscientist, or anyone should care about what happens to
them: not, ultimately, because they use tools and solve
20 problems and are intellectual beings, but because they
are emotional beings, as we are, and because their
emotions are so obviously similar to ours.
I was moved by the play, the adult male chasing
a toddler round and round a tree, the mother nibbling
25 her baby’s toes and looking blissful, the three females
playing with and adoring a single infant. They feel!
That was my discovery.
15
12. The author of Passage 1 would most likely respond to
lines 26-27 in Passage 2 (“They . . . discovery”) by
(A) applauding the author for maintaining scientific
objectivity
(B) chiding the author for not submitting findings
for scientific review
(C) criticizing the author for having poorly defined
research goals
(D) urging the author to rely less on observations
made in the wild
(E) cautioning the author against failing to verify a
conclusion
9. Both passages support which generalization about
wild chimpanzees?
(A) Their family structures are somewhat similar
to those of humans.
(B) Their behavior often resembles that of humans.
(C) Their actions are...

...Calculus
is the mathematical study of change,[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves), and integralcalculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under curves); these two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem ofcalculus. Both branches make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences and infinite series to a well-definedlimit. Calculus has widespread uses in science, economics, and engineering and can solve many problems that algebra alone cannot.
Calculus is concerned with comparing quantities which vary in a non-linear way. It is used extensively in science and engineering since many of the things we are studying (like velocity, acceleration, current in a circuit) do not behave in a simple, linear fashion. If quantities are continually changing, we need calculus to study what is going on.
BRANCHES OF CALCULUSCalculus is concerned with comparing quantities which vary in a non-linear way. It is used extensively in science and engineering since many of the things we are studying (like velocity, acceleration, current in a circuit) do not behave in a simple, linear fashion. If...

...No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Code: UCCM1153 Status: Credit Hours: 3 Semester and Year Taught:
Information on Every Subject Name of Subject: Introduction to Calculus and Applications
Pre-requisite (if applicable): None Mode of Delivery: Lecture and Tutorial Valuation: Course Work Final Examination 40% 60%
9. 10.
Teaching Staff: Objective(s) of Subject: • Review the notion of function and its basic properties. • Understand the concepts of derivatives. • Understand linear approximations. • Understand the relationship between integration and differentiation and continuity. Learning Outcomes: After completing this unit, students will be able to: 1. describe the basic ideas concerning functions, their graphs, and ways of transforming and combining them; 2. use the concepts of derivatives to solve problems involving rates of change and approximation of functions; 3. apply the differential calculus to solve optimization problems; 4. relate the integral to the derivative; 5. use the integral to solve problems concerning areas.
11.
12.
Subject Synopsis: This unit covers topics on Functions and Models, Limits and Derivatives, Differentiation Rules, Applications of Differentiation and Integrals.
13.
Subject Outline and Notional Hours: Topic Learning Outcomes 1 L 4 T 1.5 P SL 6.25 TLT 11.75
Topic 1: Functions and Models
• • • • • • Functions Models and curve fitting Transformations, combinations, composition and graphs of...

...SOLUTIONS TO SUGGESTED PROBLEMS FROM THE TEXT PART 2
3.5 2 3 4 6 15 18 28 34 36 42 43 44 48 49 3.6 1 2 6 12 17 19 23 30 31 34 38 40 43a 45 51 52 1 4 7 8 10 14 17 19 20 21 22 26 r’(θ) = cosθ – sinθ 2 2 cos θ – sin θ = cos2θ z’= -4sin(4θ) -3cos(2 – 3x) 2 cos(tanθ)/cos θ f’(x) = [-sin(sinx)](cosx) -sinθ w’ = (-cosθ)e y’ = cos(cosx + sinx)(cosx – sinx) 2 T’(θ) = -1 / sin θ x q(x) = e / sin x F(x) = -(1/4)cos(4x)
(a) dy/dt = -(4.9π/6)sin(πt/6) (b) indicates the change in depth of water (a) Graph at end (b) Max on 1 July; 4500; yes; 1 Jan (c) pos 1 April; neg 1 Oct (d) 0 2 2 2 (a) a cosθ + √l – a sin θ (b) i: -2a cm/sec 2 2 2 ii: -a√2 – a / (√l – a /2 cm/sec
28 36 37 42 52a 52b 1 2 4b 5 8 13 17 26a 29 39 41 1 2 3 17 22 29 36 44a 46 49 2 5 8 10 14 16b 21 25 26 27 5.2 1 6 8 10 14
Sketch at end Sketch at the end
x = 0: not max/min x = 3/7: local max x = 1: local min
4.2
-1/3 g decreasing near x = x0 g has local min at x1 Sketch at end Sketch at end x = 4; y = 57
Max: 20 at x = 1 Min: -2 at x = -1; x = 8 Max: 2 at x = 0; x = 3 Min: 16 at x = -1; x = 2 (a) f(1) local min; f(0), f(2) local max (b) f(1) global min; f(2) global max
Global min = 2 at x = 1, No global max D=C r = 3B/(2A) Sketch at end Sketch at end. x = L/2 x = 2a Min: -2amps; Max: 2 amps
(a) xy + πy /8 (b) x + y + πy/2 (c) x = 100/(4 + π); y = 200/(4 + π)
2
2t / (t + 1) 1 / (x – 1) cosα/sinα (lnx) + 1 e . 1/x 1 -sin (lnt) / t 2 2 / (√1 – 4t ) 1 / t lnt 2 1 / (1 + 2u + 2u ) 0.8 -1 ‹ x ‹ 1 1 / ((ln...

...1. Physical Properties of Water and Ice
1. Molecular Weight:
A. 18.01528 g/mol
Water, Molar mass
Triple Point
The temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and gaseous water coexist in equilibrium is called the triple point of water. This point is used to define the units of temperature (the kelvin, the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature and, indirectly, the degree Celsius and even the degree Fahrenheit).
As a consequence, water's triple point temperature is a prescribed value rather than a measured quantity.
The triple point is at a temperature of 273.16 K (0.01 °C) by convention, and at a pressure of 611.73 Pa. This pressure is quite low, about 1⁄166 of the normal sea level barometric pressure of 101,325 Pa. The atmospheric surface pressure on planet Mars is 610.5 Pa, which is remarkably close to the triple point pressure. The altitude of this surface pressure was used to define zero-elevation or "sea level" on that planet.[33]
Density of water and ice
Density of ice and water as a function of temperature
Density of liquid water
Temp (°C)
Density (kg/m3)[20][21]
+100
958.4
+80
971.8
+60
983.2
+40
992.2
+30
995.6502
+25
997.0479
+22
997.7735
+20
998.2071
+15
999.1026
+10
999.7026
+4
999.9720
0
999.8395
−10
998.117
−20
993.547
−30
983.854
The values below 0 °C refer to supercooled water.
The density of water is approximately one gram per cubic centimeter. It is dependent on its temperature, but the relation is not...

...The Simple Ledger: Ledger Accounts
You will now learn the system used to maintain an up to date financial position.
They use an account and ledger.
Account:
Page specially used to record financial changes
There is one account for each different item affecting the financial position. (Bank, equipment, automobile…)
Ledger:
All the accounts together are called the ledger
Group or file of accounts
Used to record business transaction and keep track of the balances in each specific account
If you wanted to know how much cash the business has to write a cheque, you would look in the ledger (Cash Account)
If you wanted to know how much the business owes on a bank loan, you would look in the ledger (Bank Loan Account)
A ledger can be prepared in different ways (cards, looseleaf ledger, computer system)
T-account:
Simple type of account. (A quick and easy way to track what is happening in each account)
Accounting form we use to keep track of the specific balance in an account
Shaped like a “T”
The formal account, the one actually used in business, will be introduced at a later time.
Important Features of Ledger Accounts
1. Each individual balance sheet item is given its own specially divided page with the name of item at the top (for now think of each “T” as a page)
Each of these pages is called an account
You must learn to call each one by name. i.e., cash account, bank loan account, and so on.
2. The dollar figure for each item is...

...1
Chapter 4.1 Marginal Functions in Economics
___________ Cost: Suppose that C ( x ) describes the cost function for producing x number of a certain product. Then the ___________ cost is the derivative of the cost function, C ( x) , and measures the rate of ________ of the cost function ______________ the number of units ______________. Note 1: The marginal cost for a particular value of x is the ___________ cost of one __________ unit of production. ___________ Revenue Function: R( x) px xf ( x) , where p f ( x) is the unit ________ function and x the __________ of units sold. Note 2: The unit price function comes from solving the ___________ equation in x and p for ____. ___________ Revenue: Suppose that R( x ) describes the revenue function for selling x number of a certain product. Then the ___________ revenue is the derivative of the revenue function, R( x) , and measures the rate of ________ of the revenue function ______________ the number of units ______________.
2
Note 3: R( x)
d xf ( x) dx
.
Note 4: The marginal revenue for a particular value of x is the ___________ revenue of one __________ unit sold. ___________ Profit: Suppose that P( x ) describes the profit function for producing and selling x number of a certain product. Then the ___________ profit is the derivative of the profit function, P( x) , and measures the rate of ________ of the profit function ______________ the number of units ______________ and ______________....

...1. A Traditional Class vs. an Online Class
As technology progresses substantially, it has bearings on every area of our life, even onthe way of learning. At present, we could either attend traditional classes in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, or virtual classes in online universities and colleges. Despitesharing some superficial similarities, the differences between a traditional class and anonline class are remarkable. Both types of learning require instruction from teachers, andhave comparable method of assessments. Though, they differ from one another in termsof scheduling, cost (tuition), and communication (interaction with other students)
The first distinction between a traditional class and an online class is scheduling.Traditional class requires a fixed place or environment for learning and teaching. This restricts the number of students that can study at the same time. Number of students would depend on the size of class and learning institution. Furthermore, traditional classis not flexible as it requires the students and teachers to attend a particular place atspecific times. For example, students of traditional class have the responsibility to showup for class to meet attendance requirement (Quality Distance Education at your Fingertips, n.d.). Therefore it is not convenient for full-time workers since they...

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