1. The Genesis and Concept of the Bourgeois Public Sphere
The public sphere (Öffentlichkeit ) is an area in social life (standing in-between private individuals and government authorities) where individuals can meet to freely discuss public matters, exchanged views and knowledge and through that discussion influence political action. A vibrant public sphere serves as a positive counterweight to government authorities (are out of the state control) and happens physically in face-to-face meetings in coffee houses and public squares as well as in books, theatre etc.
The public sphere emerged first in Britain and in the 18th century in Continental Europe. The newspapers, reading rooms, freemasonry lodges and coffeehouses marked the gradual emergence of the public sphere.
Habermas mentions Geoff Eley’s objection to his earlier depiction of bourgeois public sphere is an idealized conception. Habermas admits now the coexistence of several competing public spheres and groups, that were excluded form the dominant public sphere – the so called „plebian“ public sphere (like Jacobins, Chartist movement). Habermas influenced here by Guenter Lottes and greatly by Mikhail Bakhtin, who opened his eyes to the culture of common people as a violent counter project to the dominant public sphere. Habermas now views quite differently the exclusion of women as well.
Habermas asks himself – were women excluded from the dominant public sphere in the same... [continues]
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(2012, 04). Habermas, Jürgen. 1992. „Further Reflections on the Public Sphere. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 04, 2012, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Habermas-Jurgen-1992-Further-Reflections-On-964113.html
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