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A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry

A Level Science Applications Support Booklet: Chemistry
Contents INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................1 1 – THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE .............................................................................................................2 1.1 – Introduction ................................................................................................................................2 1.2 – Protein chemistry .......................................................................................................................6 Proteins – the workhorses of life .....................................................................................................6 Amino acids – the building blocks of proteins .................................................................................7 Structure – the key to protein function ..........................................................................................10 Enzymes – Nature’s catalysts .......................................................................................................16 1.3 – Genetic information..................................................................................................................27 DNA – the source of heredity ........................................................................................................27 The structure of DNA ....................................................................................................................29 The structure of RNA ....................................................................................................................31 Gene expression ...........................................................................................................................32 Mutations.......................................................................................................................................38 1.4 – ATP, Life’s energy currency.....................................................................................................43 1.5 – Metals in biological systems ....................................................................................................45 Iron and the haem proteins ...........................................................................................................45 Zinc as an enzyme cofactor ..........................................................................................................46 Sodium and potassium ion transfer across cell membranes.........................................................46 Toxic trace metals in the environment ..........................................................................................47 Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................48 1.6 – Revision self-assessment questions........................................................................................49 1.7 – Key definitions .........................................................................................................................51 1.8 – Resources................................................................................................................................54 2 – APPLICATIONS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ..........................................................................55 2.1 – Introduction ..............................................................................................................................55 Astrobiology ..................................................................................................................................55 2.2 – Determining...
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