113 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW FOR THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT REGENTS EXAM
1. Amino acids are the individual units that bond together to form a polypeptide (protein). 2. Monosaccharides are the individual units that bond to together to form a polysaccharide (starch). 3. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze (help) chemical reactions. 4. The 3-dimensional shape of a molecule it important to its proper functioning. 5. Bacteria are prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, and other membrane bound organelles. 6. The nucleus contains DNA in eukaryotic cells.
7. Chloroplasts are organelles found in autotrophic cells that produce glucose in the process of photosynthesis.
8. Mitochondria are the organelles where aerobic cellular respiration occurs to produce ATP energy in cells. 9. The cell membrane is a selectively permeable boundary around a cell. 10. Diffusion from high to low concentration will occur across a membrane if the molecules are small and unchanged.
11. A large surface area will allow for a fast rate of diffusion into a cell. (e.g. root hairs, villi) 12. Active transport occurs when membrane proteins use ATP energy to carry materials into and out of a cell. 13. Receptor proteins in cell membranes attach to specific molecules. 14. Many of the cells inside the human body are differentiated to carry out specific functions. While all cells have the same DNA, some genes are activated and others inactivated, causing cells and tissues to differentiate.
15. Mitosis involves a diploid cell dividing into two identical daughter cells. 16. Cancer involves body cells dividing uncontrollably by mitosis. 17. Meiosis is the process of producing monoploid cells.
18. Meiosis is one of the factors responsible for producing variation among the gametes produced by an organism.
19. New individuals of an existing species are produced through the process of reproduction. 20. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that...