Guru Gobind Singh Ji

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  • Topic: Guru Gobind Singh, Khalsa, Guru Granth Sahib
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Guru Gobind Singh pronunciation (help·info) (born Gobind Rai[1]) (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (Marathi: गुरु गोबिंद सिंघ); 22 December 1666 - 7 October 1708[2]) was the Tenth of the ten physical living Sikh Gurus]]. Born in Patna, Bihar in India, he was also a Warrior, Poet and Philosopher. He succeeded his Father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the Leader of Sikhs at the young age of nine. He contributed much to Sikhism; notable was his contribution to the continual formalisation of the faith which the First Sikh Guru Ji Guru Nanak had founded, as a religion, in the 15th century.[3][4] Guru Gobind Singh, the last of the living Sikh Gurus, initiated the Sikh Khalsa in 1699,[5] passing the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Eleventh and Eternal Guru of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib.

Contents [hide]
1 Education and family
2 Early life
3 Founding of the Khalsa
4 Pilgrimage from Anandpur Sahib to Talwandi Sabo
5 Conflicts with the Rajas of Sivalik Hills
5.1 Evacuation from Anandpur
6 Later travels
6.1 Stay at Dina
7 After Aurangzeb's death
8 Final days
8.1 Mughal accounts of Guru Gobind Singh
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links

[edit] Education and familyGuru Gobind Singh was born to Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Ninth Sikh Guru, and Mata Gujri Ji in Patna.[6] He was born while his father was on a tour of the neighbouring state of Assam, spreading God's word.There is a famous saying that a ruler was destined to be born in a land where, intelligent and strong he would lead the Sikhs as a brave warrior and so it was that he was born by the side of the Holy Ganges (present day Patna Sahib) where he learned Persian and Sanskrit when he was a child and was also trained to become a warrior.[5]

Guru Gobind Singh married [7][8][9] and had four children.[10] He was married to Mata Jito/Sundari, they had four sons together Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Zorawar Singh, Jujhar Singh and Fateh Singh.

[edit] Early lifeGuru Tegh Bahadur Sahib had found a the city of Anandpur Sahib in 1665, on land purchased from the ruler of Bilaspur (Kahlur). After His tour of eastern parts of India ended, He asked His Family to come to Anandpur. Gobind Rai reached Anandpur (then known as Chakk Nanaki), on the foothills of the Sivalik Hills, in March 1672. Gobind Rai's early education included study of languages and training as a Soldier. He had started studying Hindi and Sanskrit while at Patna. At Anandpur Sahib, he started studying Punjabi under Sahib Chand, and Persian under Qazi Pir Mohammad.

In April 1685, Guru Gobind Singh shifted His residence to Paonta in Sirmaur State at the invitation of Raja Mat Prakash of Sirmaur. According to the Gazetteer of the Sirmur State, the Guru was compelled to quit Anandpur Sahib due to differences with Bhim Chand, and went to Toka.[11] From Toka, he was invited to Nahan, the capital of Sirmaur by Mat Prakash. From Nahan, he proceeded to Paonta. Mat Prakash invited the Guru to his kingdom in order to strengthen his position against Raja Fateh Shah of Garhwal. At the request of Raja Mat Prakash, the Guru constructed a fort at Paonta with help of his followers, in a short time. The Guru remained at Paonta for around three years, and composed several texts.

The hostility between Nahan King and Fateh Shah, the Garhwal king continued to increase during the latter's stay at Paonta, ultimately resulting in the Battle of Bhangani near Paonta. Fateh Shah attacked on 18 September 1688; the battle resulted in the Guru's victory.

In the Battle of Nadaun in 1687, the armies of Alif Khan and his aides were defeated by the allied forces of Bhim Chand, Guru Gobind Singh and other hill Rajas. According to Bichitra Natak and the Bhatt Vahis, Guru Gobind Singh remained at Nadaun, on the banks of the River Beas, for eight days, and visited the places of all the chiefs. Sometime after the Battle of Bhangani, Rani Champa, the dowager queen of Bilaspur requested the Guru to return to Anandpur Sahib, or...
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