January 14–18, 2008
TIPS FOR TAKING THE TEST
Here are some suggestions to help you do your best:
• Be sure to read carefully all the directions in the test book. • Plan your time. • Read each question carefully and think about the answer before choosing or writing your response.
Acknowledgments CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC is indebted to the following for permission to use material in this book: “Conversations with Apes” by Aline Alexander Newman, from National Geographic Kids Magazine’s April 2005 issue, copyright © 2005 by National Geographic Society. Used by permission. Photograph of three Pygmy Chimpanzees (Image No. KA001090), copyright © by Karl Ammann/Corbis. Used by permission. Excerpt from “The Ride Home” by Natale Ghent, from No Small Thing, copyright © 2003 by Natale Ghent, ﬁrst U.S. edition 2005. “Once Upon a Time” by Beverly Patt from Guideposts for Kids Magazine, copyright © 2000 by Guideposts, Carmel, New York. Used by permission. “Freaky Farm” by Teresa Milanese from Boy’s Life magazine’s October 2003 issue, copyright © 2003 by Teresa Milanese, photograph courtesy of the Cz Family. Used by permission. Excerpt from The Island by Gary Paulsen, text copyright © 1988 by Gary Paulsen. Used by permission of Scholastic, Inc.
Developed and published by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC, a subsidiary of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 20 Ryan Ranch Road, Monterey, California 93940-5703. Copyright © 2008 by New York State Education Department. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of New York State Education Department.
In this part of the test, you will do some reading and answer questions about what you have read. For the multiple-choice questions, you will mark your answers on the answer sheet. For questions 27 and 28, you will write your answers directly in the test book.
■ SECURE MATERIAL ■
Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule.
Read this article. Then answer questions 1 through 4.
Conversations with Apes
by Aline Alexander Newman
Raring to go! Panbanisha, a female bonobo (buh-NO-bo), often hitches a ride—but she’d probably rather drive. One day, while out in the woods of Georgia, Panbanisha suddenly leaped into a parked golf cart. By pushing the accelerator with her foot, she started the engine. Gripping the steering wheel with both hands, she looked over her shoulder and backed up. Next she shifted gears and zoomed ahead. The only reason she stopped was because she rammed the cart into a tree! (She wasn’t hurt.) “We never taught her to drive,” says Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, the primatologist in charge of the Georgia State University Language Research Center in Atlanta. But that didn’t prevent this smart ape from teaching herself. Of the great apes—bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and chimpanzees—bonobos are the most like humans. Savage-Rumbaugh decided to study them to see whether they could pick up language on their own, as humans do. It turns out that they can. In fact, Savage-Rumbaugh has discovered that bonobos can learn to do lots of things on their own.
Growing up in the language center lab, Panbanisha and her brother, Kanzi, had human caretakers, watched TV, and played with toys. Both drink from a glass, brush their teeth, and use the toilet. They also communicate. At ﬁrst, the apes simply listened—picking up the meanings of words by hearing people talk. Later they learned to say things by pressing symbols on a portable computer. One day, a young female bonobo named Tamuli stole Savage-Rumbaugh’s keys. The researcher begged and pleaded and even offered food in exchange. But the mischievous ape laughed and refused to give them...