Jared Diamond, the author of Guns, Germs and Steel provides an overview of life before we knew it. Many people including Yali, a local politician in New Guinea, had the idea that cultural differences were based on the color of people, instead of the environment they were from. Jared Diamond didn't feel that way and he tried to prove that history was made based on the environment that you lived in. Diamond believed that the differences were divided between the Modern Stone Age versus the Industrial age. The environment you were raised in would effect your perception of the world you grew to know. Climate, wealth and power were some of the things that had a huge impact on how our history unfolded. The climate affects different cultures in many different ways. In the cold, you are required to find shelter and clothing to help you survive. In the warm climate, clothing would not be of such of a necessity. If you lived in a cooler climate than living expenses might be much higher then if you lived in a warmer climate. The Europeans had much more "cargo" then the New Guineans therefore they could trade or sell their cargo to make them wealthier. The era that we live in today provides us with tools needed to survive on a day to day basis. For example, we were born with the luxury of modern tools, weapons and industries that aid in our survival. The people living in the Stone Age, on the other hand, had to create their own tools, weapons and survival methods to continue civilization. Without their ability to create the necessary tools to survive, civilization may not have continued.