1. The Guiding Principles On Internal Displacement and Development of International Norms
Internally Displaced People is the persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or leave their homes or origin places as a result of, or to avoid the effects of, armed conflict, generalized violence, or natural or man-made disaster and who have not crossed an internationally-recognized state border. The spiraling crisis of internal displacement has created special attention to some private experts in International system to provide several useful mechanisms for addressing the problem, it was an attempt to create a set of international norms in favor of the rights of IDPs based on existing human rights, humanitarian, and analogous refugee law. By creating the norms, it can then be generated to a Guiding Principle of Internal Displacement. In the development of the norms, the experts try to use “soft law” as means to convey the norms through the states and non state actors. “Soft Law” includes only soft obligations and more to non-binding rules and codes of conduct is formulated and accepted by International Organizations and the statement is created by individuals in an NGO capacity by which the purport lay down an international principle. So it derives from individual experts rather than states. The creation of Soft Law in internal displacement also as the result of the major impetus of international recognition on the Internal Displacement problems lay with NGOs group. NGO, International Organizations and UN agencies play important role in creating the Guiding Principles of Internal Displacement. Existing International Law also used as tools to compile the GPID (Guiding Principles in Internal Displacement) and to make focus on the protection of human rights on the internally displacement. The foundation of this guiding principle is the norm of sovereignty as responsibility. The protection and assistance of IDP resides with states as the important aspect on their sovereignty.
2. Commentary: Privately Generated Soft Law in International Governance
The end of cold war marked the IDPs victim as increasing, and need some crucial step to be taken into action, that’s why Deng and NGOs team work together to generate GPID based on Soft Law approach. There are three hypotheses on the privately generated soft law; first, NGOs activists prefer soft law because it is easier and open to civil society rather than states based soft law. Second, IO should monitor private soft law process for the pursuit of normative agenda. Third, weak states should gain soft law process without the need to gain approval of powerful states, and GPID process provides supports for this hypotheses. Although in the process of developing the norms Deng and team faced dilemma, but Deng conclude that the creation of Guiding Principles by private sector has achieved wide acceptance and impact. There are 3 stages in “Life Cycle” of norms: Issue framing, Formulating and spreading norms, and involvement of superpower states in internalizing norms to be widely accepted, Meanwhile GPID now is still in the second stage. In the disseminating and adopting private generated soft law, GPID is compared with HCNM (High Commissioner on National Minorities) dealing with ethnic conflict. Indeed they have different ways of disseminating but both of them were doing effective approach in spreading the norms. Since GPID is much processed by NGOs and International Organizations, they need single clear normative framework to benchmark their operations in disseminating GPID and monitoring states on applying GPID. The adoption and compliance by states is really important, because state have the most authority in carrying the duty to execute GPID in their responsibility protecting each other. GPID therefore need a test in its normative framework and theories in international system. Best support of IO-NGO will be very important to...