What is in this guide?
All development workers, and community organisations may at times work with development projects. This may bring you into contact with consultants, project teams and project managers. Whilst you may not manage specific projects is important that you understand both the technical and managerial aspects of project management. This will ensure that you and your organisation can make an informed contribution to the projects and can monitor implementation and outcomes. This guide has the follow ing sections: Chapter 1: Technical aspects to project management
What is a project? What is project management? Project stakeholders T he project life cycle Defining the project o Defining the project scope o Creating the work breakdown structure o Estimating cost and developing budget Constructing a project network plan o Project schedule Chapter 2. Managerial aspects of project management
Project manager Project risk management Project communication management Project quality management
Technical aspects to project management
What is a project?
A project is an assignment/task/job that has to be undertaken and completed within a set time, budget, resources and performance specifications designed to meet the needs of stakeholder and beneficiaries For example The Canadian International Donor Agency (CIDA) has donated R7.5 million to provide RDP homes to 50 fam ilies living in the Joe Slovo inform settlement. On 6 February 2004, the agency al signed a contract with the Department of Housing to implem ent the project. The following requirem ents, am ongst others were set in the contract:
1. The RDP houses must meet specifications in line w ith government policy. 2. In order to ensure sustainability and affordability for the 50 families, the head of each of the 50 families m ust be given skills development training in sm business development and all small business start-up. This is to ensure that the families will be able to afford rentals, maintenance of the homes and to expand their hom to accommodate the grow th of the es families in the future. 3. The project m ust be completed within three years and the handover of the homes to the 50 families must be a high profile public event. From the example we see: • • • • • • a clear task - build RDP homes for 50 families; a set time – within 3 years; a budget – R7.5 million; performance specifications to meet the stakeholder needs – houses that meet the specifications in line with government policy, training for the head of each family; beneficiaries – 50 families; stakeholders – donor agency, Department of Housing
What is project m anagement?
Project Management is the use of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to plan and implement activities to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a pr oject.
Project stakeholders are individuals and organisations who are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the project. Key stakeholders in the example above include: • • • • Project Manager - the individual responsible for managing the project; Project beneficiaries – 50 families who are going to receive the houses; Performing organisation – the Department of Housing whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project; Sponsor – Canadian International Development Agency.
In addition to these there are many different typical stakeholders: • • Suppliers and contractors – e.g. Construction companies, Skills development and education and training organisations, legal firms, events management company; Project team members and their families;
Government agencies – e.g. local municipality. Community representatives and organisations
The project life cycle
Projects are usually divided into project stages (i.e., definition, planning, execution and delivery stages) to provide better...