Guidance and Counseling

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1.2. Purpose of the study
This study assessed the quality of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools with practicing school counsellors in Edo state.
To achieve this, the researcher examined the qualification of personnel providing guidance and counselling services, availability of materials for the successful execution of Nigerian secondary school guidance and counselling services and the impact of guidance programs on students’ adjustment.

1.3. Significance of the study
Guidance and counselling is the bedrock for achieving self-actualisation. It is a process of helping individuals to understand themselves by discovering their own needs, interests and capabilities in order to formulate their own goals and make plans for realizing those goals. An analysis of guidance and counselling services in providing adequate guidance for secondary school students is of paramount importance; hence the this study.

The result from the study will help in throwing more light on how guidance and counselling services is being implemented in secondary schools in Nigeria and the quality of guidance services received by secondary school students. In addition, it provides information to education planners and school administrators on their responsibility in providing adequate facilities for guidance and counselling services in order for students to receive quality guidance. It also reveals the extent to which guidance and counselling services influence the total development of the potentials and proper adjustment of secondary school students.

Research on School Counseling Effectiveness

Provides a collection of sources that address the effectiveness of school counseling and other student support services, including their contribution to the personal and academic success of students.

California has made important strides in class size reduction, higher academic standards, greater accountability, and improved teacher preparation. The important missing link in these initiatives to improve student learning is the need for more school counselors and other student support services, such as school psychologists, school social workers, and school nurses. Traditionally, California students' access to counselors varies by grade level, and 29 percent of California school districts have no counseling programs at all. When counseling programs exist, counselors are often asked to add administrative duties such as testing, supervising, and class scheduling. The ratio of students per counselor in this state averages 945 to 1, compared to the national average of 477 to 1, ranking California last in the nation. School counselors provide counseling programs in three domains: academic, career, and personal/social. Their services and programs help students resolve emotional, social, or behavioral problems and help them develop a clearer focus or sense of direction. Effective counseling programs are important to the school climate and a crucial element in improving student achievement. Following is a collection of sources that address the effectiveness of school counseling and other student support services, including their contribution to the personal and academic success of students. 1. Reviews of the research on school counseling show that the services of school counselors have a positive effect on children.

Borders, L.D., & Drury, S.M. (1992). Comprehensive school counseling programs: A review for policymakers and practitioners. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 487-498.  Gerler, E.R. (1985). Elementary school counseling research and the classroom learning environment. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 20, 39-48.  St. Clair, K.L. (1989). Middle school counseling research: A resource for school counselors. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 23, 219-226.  Whitson, S.C., & Sexton, T.L. (1998). A review of school counseling outcome research: implications for practice. Journal...
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