SCHOOL OF DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIC STUDIES
DEPARTMENT: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND DIPLOMACY
COURSE: TERRORISM IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
COURSE CODE: DIR 316
INSTRUCTOR: MR. OWISO MIKE
YEAR OF STUDY: 3RD YEAR, 2ND SEMESTER.
TASK: GROUP WORK
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 23/3/2013
QUESTION: DISCUSS GUERILLA TERRORISM.
GROUP MEBERS REG NOSIGNITURE
1. TARI ELIZABETH QABALE DS/0002/010
2. EMMACULATE ADHIAMBO ATIENO DS/3004/010
The word Guerrilla means 'little war” in Spanish. It was first used within the English language as early as 1809 to mean a fighter. Up to date it still denotes the specific style of warfare. According to a Canadian Oxford Dictionary, Guerrilla is a diffuse type of war, fought in relatively small formations, against a stronger enemy using military tactics such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to dominate a larger and less-mobile traditional army or strike a vulnerable target, and withdraw almost immediately. Mao Zedong, in his 1937 treatise “On Guerilla Warfare”, also defined guerrilla attacks as ones in which small bands struck their enemy by surprise, inflicted a maximum amount of damage in the shortest possible time and retreated in a fast and well-planned fashion so as to repeat such strikes. Guerrilla warfare is used by the side which is supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression. A guerilla fighter is someone who is ready to give his life, not to defend an ideal, but rather to convert it into reality. This forms the basis and the essence of guerrilla fighting. Historical Background of Guerilla Warfare
The history of guerrilla warfare as an effective tactic for defeating larger enemies dates back most prominently to the Roman Empire, as pillaging and banditry by barbarians ate away at frontier resources. There were many reasons for the decline of Roman power across its broad sphere of power, guerrilla attrition being only one factor, but the acts of barbarians, such as the Germanic and English warriors after 43 A.D., halted the Roman expansion and occupation in certain regions. Another notable case of the origins of guerrilla tactics is the Old Testament example of the Maccabees, a story of Jewish freedom fighters. In the second century B.C., the Maccabees defeated their Greek and Syrian oppressors and retook Jerusalem by deliberately resorting to guerrilla actions to compensate for their relatively small number of fighters. In many ways, guerrilla warfare has not changed too much since the days of the Old Testament and the Roman Empire. In contemporary Chechnya, attacks that generally fit Mao’s description of guerrilla warfare have been waged often by Chechen rebels against the Russian military. However, observing the modern Chechen conflict as a whole, both within and beyond the territory itself, one may find difficulty in distinguishing clearly between guerrilla warfare and acts of terrorism. The line which distinguishes the two concepts may become blurred. At times, Chechen groups have resorted to both guerrilla actions against the occupying Russian state and acts of indiscriminate terrorism against the civilians of non-Chechen Russia. In an example of the first case, an explosives-laden truck killed 40 people at a government building in northern Chechnya in May of 2003. In an example of the second, Chechen terrorists took hundreds of hostages at a packed Moscow theatre in October of 2002. Types of Guerilla Warfare
There are two main types of guerilla warfare: Rural guerilla and Urban guerilla. Rural guerrilla warfare is the use of violence against military personnel and security forces in their area of deployment, activity and transport in order to attain political aims. Urban guerrilla warfare involves targeting a specific urban military facility or...