* Bioengineering- direct deliberate modification of an organism’s genome. * Biotechnology- use of an organism’s biochemical and metabolic pathways for industrial production.
1. Tools and techniques of genetic engineering
* Enzymes for dicing, splicing, and reversing nucleic acids. * Analysis of DNA.
* Restriction endonucleases- recognize specific sequence of DNA and break phosphate-sugar bond. * Liagase- rejoins phosphate-sugar bonds cuts by endonucleases. * Reverse transcript-makes a DNA copy of RNA.
* Analysis of DNA
* Gel electrophoresis- separates DNA fragments based on size. * Nucleic acid hybridization and phrobes- probes based pair with complementary sequence used to detect specific sequences. * DNA sequence- reading the sequence of nucleotides in a stretch of DNA. * Polymerase chain reaction- way to amplify DNA.
2. Methods in Recombinant DNA technology:
* Concerned with transferring DNA from one organism to another. * Cloning vectors and hosts.
* Construction of a recombinant plasmid (vector can be a movement or a viruses) * Characteristics of Cloning Vectors:
* Must be capable of carrying a significant piece of donor DNA. * Must be accepted by the cloning host.
* Plasmids- small, well characterized, easy to manipulate and can be transferred into appropriate host cells through transformation. * Bacteria phages- have the natural ability to inject their DNA into bacterial hosts through transduction. 3. Characteristics of Cloning Hosts:
* Rapid overturn, fast growth rate.
* Can be grown in large quantities using ordinary culture methods. * Nonpathogenic
* Genome that is well delineated.
* Capable of accepting plasmids or bacteriophage vectors. * Maintain foreign genes through multiple generations
* Secrete a high yield of proteins from expressed foreign genes. 4. Biochemical Products of...