2. Causes of Overpopulation.
3. Carrying capacity.
4. The effects of human overpopulation.
4.1 Depletion of natural resources.
4.2 Deforestation and loss of ecosystems
4.3 Fresh water
4.4 Animal extinction
4.6 Global warming.
7. Library exercise.
This is a report on Growing human population and related global problems. The aim of this report was to research the growth rate of humans and impact on our planet associated with overpopulation. This report should help familiarise people with current situation and draw attention to a negative forecast on our future and future of our planet. By definition - overpopulation is a condition where an organism’s numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat (basically it is a relationship between the human population and the Earth).
Some Historical Facts and Data
Table 1: Estimated world population 8000 BC -2010 AD.
Year Population Comments
8000-1000 BC250 million
1804 1 billionIt took two thousand years to reach 1 billion 19272 billionIn 123 years population doubled
19603 billion33 years later
19744 billion14 years later
19875 billion13 years later
19996 billion12 years later
20106.8 billion11 years passed
Figure 1: Growth of human population from 8000 BC to present day. From a graph (fig. 1) it is very clear that growth of human population is exponential.
Figure 2: Regional annual growth of population with projection to 2050 2. Causes of Overpopulation
Decline of a death rate is one of the main reasons for overpopulation. Due to medical and pharmaceutical progress people have found cure to many diseases which were previously fatal. This has resulted in increase of human life and mortality rate has declined resulting in high increase of population. Increase of a birth rate- again in recent years medical science has made a big progress in nutrition and fertility discoveries resulting in boost of human reproductive ability. Migration – it become a problem in some parts of our planet. There are some countries where there is no balance of people immigrating (coming) in a country and people emigrating (leaving) from that country. This result in high population density (Fig 3). Luck of education – is another factor for overpopulation. People who are not educated don’t understand existing problem of overpopulation and why it is important to take actions. They are not familiar with contraception and family planning. According to Unite Nation Children’s Fund (UNISEF) in 1998 the illiteracy rate among children was 16% and they predicted that in 21st century it would rise, because only a quarter of world’s children were at school in 1990 – 2000. P
Figure 3: Map of population density
3. Carrying capacity.
Carrying capacity is defined as “the maximum number of animals that a specific habitat or area can support without causing deterioration or degradation to that habitat.” Literally our planet can support only limited amount of human population without causing harm to it self. If this balance is breached the disaster is inevitable. At the moment there are many debates going on among scientist that are trying to estimate the Earth’s carrying capacity for humans. The figures vary from 1 to 1000 billion. But 2/3 of all estimates lay in the range of 4 – 16 billion.
4. The effects of human overpopulation
The effects human overpopulation are numerous and complex. With the growing number of people on a planet the resources are being used faster than they can be replaced. This put a huge pressure on humans and on our planet.
4.1 Depletion of natural resources. As a result of overpopulation an unsustainable depletion of natural...