Groups

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CHAPTER 6: Groups
Group is defined as any number of persons who share a consciousness of membership and interaction. A group is not a mere collection of individuals but an aggregate of personalities acting and interacting with one another in the process of living.

TYPES:

1. Primary Group - described by Charles Cooley as those characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation.

2. Secondary Group - those which do not necessarily involve face-to-face association or intimate and personal relations.

CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Interaction - patterns of mutual influence (physical, verbal, non-verbal, emotional)

2. Structure - stable patterns of relationships

3. Goals - reasons for existence

4. Perceived Groupness - extend to which members see themselves as one (common fate, similarity, proximity)

5. Dynamic Interdependency - extend to which members are active, energized, vibrant and changing

6. Motivation - personal needs / gain being satisfied

CHAPTER 6: Leadership

A Leader is:
* Someone who acts as a guide;
* A directing head;
* Someone who leads a body of troops;

Leadership is:
* The position of a leader;
* The quality displayed by a leader;
* The act of leading

From a follower‟s perspective, good leadership can be attributed on several qualities that a person must have. These qualities make people comply and passionately follow a leader.

CHAPTER 8: Decision Making

Involvement in decision:

1. The Plop - Here the group makes a decision by not making a decision. “Not to decide – is to decide” Someone makes a suggestion, but it drops like a stone into a pond, and no one pays any attention to it at all. If the person who made the suggestion really felt enthusiastic about it, the fact that it was totally ignored could make that person withdraw or resist later suggestions.

2. The One-Person Decision - This is quickly made, but later when the decider depends on free or voluntary support from others to implement it, he may find himself carrying it out alone. Topic Jumping: One person can also prevent a group reaching a decision by introducing a new point just as the group is ready to decide something. If the point is relevant it should be allowed, though it should have been brought in earlier. If it is not relevant, it should be recognized as a distraction or any attempt by one person to control the group, and should not be allowed to prevent the group from making a decision. 3. The Handclasp - One person makes a suggestion. Another says, “What a marvelous idea!” and without further discussion, the matter is decided. These decisions are more frequent than one thinks, and other pass unnoticed at the time but resentment comes to the surface later.

4. The Clique - This decision is made by a small group who plan beforehand to get their way. Because they are better organized than those who disagree, they are often successful on the immediate issue but they bring a spirit of rivalry rather than cooperation into the group.

5. Minority - These decisions are as consciously organized as those of the clique, but a few powerful personalities dominate the group, often unconsciously and then later they wonder why the other is apathetic.

6. Majority Vote - In big groups this is often the most effective way to make a decision. However, one may lose the interest or the loyalty of the minority who voted against a decision especially if they feel their point of view was not heard.

7. Silent Consensus - Some groups aim at unanimous decisions. These are good, if genuine, but they are rarely achieved completely on important issues. Unanimous agreement is sometimes assumed, when some members have not felt free to disagree and have kept silent.

8. Consensus - This is an agreement, often involving compromise or the combination of various possibilities, after all opinions have been heard. Disagreements and minority viewpoints are...
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