Group Development

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Tuckman’s Model of Group Development
Forming: in which the group is just coming together. It is often characterized by shyness, uncertainty and diffidence among the members, although extravert members may rapidly assume some kind of leadership. Maintenance concerns predominate Storming: in which, having been established, there is a period of jockeying for position, authority and influence among the members. In classes, this is the period of "testing-out" the teacher. Disagreements appear or are manufactured and roles are eventually allocated. The initial leaders may not survive this period: it is the most uncomfortable phase of the group's life—a sort of group adolescence. Norming: having sorted out its internal structure, there is then the issue of what the group stands for. What kind of behavior and contribution is acceptable and what isn't? Members explore behind the power processes of storming and begin to form some idea of the group's identity: the "group in the mind". This is rarely done explicitly, of course, and it can readily slip back into Storming, Performing: after all that, the group can begin to get some work done, on the basis of a relatively stable structure. Adjourning: This is about completion and disengagement, both from the tasks and the group members. Individuals will be proud of having achieved much and glad to have been part of such an enjoyable group. They need to recognize what they've done, and consciously move on. Some describe stage 5 as "Deforming and Mourning", recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members. Adapted from: ATHERTON J S (2003) Learning and Teaching: Group Development [On-line] UK: Available: http://www.dmu.ac.uk/~jamesa/teaching/group_development.htm Accessed: 2 July 2004 www.chimaeraconsulting.com/tuckman.htm

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