Gross Anatomy Lab Report

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Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System
Purpose:

What is the purpose of this exercise?
The purpose of this exercise is for students to identify and name the major muscles of the human body. Students will also understand the muscle actions correspond with their locations in the body.

Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise? If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken. There are some safety concerns with this exercise. Gloves, masks and goggles should be worn at all times. Using the tools correctly is imparitive to making sure the student remains unharmed.

Exercise 1: Muscles of the Head and Neck

Data Table 1 – Movement(s) performed by each muscle for Figures 3-4.

Muscle|Movement(s) Performed|
Example: Deltoid|Example: Abducts the arm|
Frontalis|Elevates eyebrows, draws scalp forward|
Levator Scapulae|Extension of neck, Elevation and Rotation of Scapulae| Masseter|Elevation of mandible|
Obicularis oris|Encircles mouth, closes lips, protrudes lips| Occipitalis|Retracts scalp, fixes galea aponeurotica so frontalis can act eyebrows.| Orbicularis oculi|Sphincter of the eyelids, closes eyes for blinking, squinting and sleep; aids in flow of tears across eyes.| Platysma|Draws lower lip and angle of mouth downward; aids in opening mouth widely.| Splenius capitis|Flexion and rotation of head, extend the head bilaterally| Sternocleidomastoid|Tilts head upward, |

Supraspinatus|Abducts the arm|
Trapezius|Abducts the scapulae|
Zygomaticus|Draws mouth upward and elevates upper lip|

Questions:

A.List a muscle shown in Figures 3 and 4 that are prime movers/agonists for pivoting the head. The prime movers for pivoting the head are the trapziues.

B.List one prime mover/agonist for extension of the head.
The prime mover/agonist for extension of the head is the sternocleidmastoid.

C.List one muscle that is the prime mover/agonist for depression of the mandible and list one muscle that is the antagonist for depression of the mandible. The one muscle that is the prime mover for the mandible is the masseter.

D.List one muscle that is a prime mover for smiling.
The one muscle that is a prime mover for smiling is the masseter.

E.List one muscle that raises your eyebrow as if you were questioning what someone said. The one muscle that raises your eyebrow is the orbicularis oculi.

Exercise 2: Muscles of the Trunk

Data Table 2 – Movement(s) performed by each muscle for Figures 5 through 7. Muscle|Movement(s) Performed|
Deltoid|Adducts the arm|
External intercostal muscles|Elevates ribs, expands thoracic cavity| External oblique|Flexion of the trunk|
Infraspinatis |Externally rotates the arm|
Internal intercostal muscles|Elevates ribs, depresses and retracts the ribs, compresses thoracic cavity| Latissimus dorsi|Adducts humerus, extends shoulder|
Pectoralis major|Adducts, flexes and extends the arm|
Pectoralis minor|Depresses the scapulae|
Rectus abdominis (under fascia)|Flexes lumbar region of vertebral column, producing bending at the waist.| Rhomboid major|Retracts scapula, fixes scapula during arm movements| Rhomboid minor|Retracts scapula, fixes scapula during arm movements| Serratus anterior|Protraction and upward rotation of the shoulder| Serratus posterior|Elevates the ribs, rotates the trunk|

Subscapularis|Internally rotates the arm|
Supraspinatus|Adducts the arm|
Teres major|Flexes and rotates the arm|
Trapezius|Moves the Scapula and supports the arm|

QUESTIONS

A.List one muscle shown in Figures 5 through 7 that is a prime mover/agonist for adducting the arms. The muscles that are the prime movers for adducting the arms are the teres major and minor.

B.List one shoulder muscle that abducts the arm.
One shoulder muscle that abducts the arm is the deltoids.

C.Which muscle is the prime mover for shoulder flexion (upper arm moving toward the ear)? The muscle that is the prime mover...
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