The case originated in a lawsuit filed by Willie Griggs and twelve other African-American employees of Duke Power's Dan River hydroelectric plant in Draper, North Carolina. Before the passage of the Civil Rights Act, Duke Power discriminated against African-Americans in hiring and promotion, restricting them to the company's Labor department. In 1955, Duke Power instituted a high school diploma requirement for initial hiring in any department except Labor. (The other departments of Duke Power included Maintenance, Operations, and Laboratory.) In 1965, when the Civil Rights Act went into effect, this requirement was expanded to block transfers from Labor to other departments by employees who had not graduated high school. ISSUE:
This case was mainly concerned with the legality, under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, of high school diplomas and intelligence test scores as prerequisites for employment. RULES
Willie Griggs and the twelve other African American employees have to prove: •They are members of a protected class
•Prima facie case (The plaintiffs must prove, generally through statistical comparisons, that the challenged practice or selection device has a substantial adverse impact on a protected group.) •The treatment they received was based on race, religion, color, national origin or gender (or other protected status under state law); and •The treatment was sufficiently severe or pervasive so as to alter the conditions of their employment and create a hostile working environment (e.g. interferes with employee's ability to perform) Duke Power must prove:
•No intentional discrimination against African-Americans in hiring and promotion, restricting them to the company's Labor department. •Institution of a high school diploma requirement for initial hiring in any department except Labor to block transfers from Labor to other departments by employees who had not graduated high school. •Their employment...