The initiatives involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, and distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. The term "Green Revolution" has been attributed to William Gaud of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in a speech given to the Society for International Development in March 1968. In December 1969, the Green Revolution was presented by him to the U.S. Congress as a major tool of American foreign policy that provided bright market prospects to the pesticide, fertilizer, seed, and tractor industries in the third world countries. The fertilizers started making its way to India in early 1950s. There were three group of agencies involved in transferring the American modal of agriculture to India- the private American foundations (Rockefeller foundation, Ford Foundation etc), American government and the World Bank. In 1958 he Indian Agriculture Research Institute which had been set up in 1905was reorganised and Ralph Cummings, the field director of the Rockefeller foundation became its first Dean. The work of Rockefeller foundation and Ford foundation was to facilitate, to introduce the capital intensive agriculture in poor countries with the financial aid of World Bank. Rockefeller foundation also financed trainees form India to learn new technologies form America. All the money was aided by the help of World Bank. But the Indian indigenous breeds and variety was not responsive to these fertilisers. Indigenous breeds used to topple from head when fed with fertilisers, due to its higher length of stem from panicle to roots. When fed with fertilisers panicle used to become heavy and finally toppled decreasing the productivity. The research on plants with short stems was discovered by Norman Borlaug in his dwarf variety of wheat through his research in CIMMYT (A research station in Mexico on wheat and maize). The...
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