Agriculture is the backbone of India’s economic activity and our experience during the last 50 years has demonstrated the strong correlation between agricultural growth and economic prosperity. The present agricultural scenario is a mix of outstanding achievements and missed opportunities. If India has to emerge as an economic power in the world, our agricultural productivity should equal those countries, which are currently rated as economic power of the world. We need a new and effective technology which can improve continuously the productivity, profitability, sustainability of our major farming systems. is new to India. Greenhouse Technology Growing plants is both an art and a science. About 95% of plants, either food crops or cash crops are grown in open field. Since time immemorial, man has learnt how to grow plants under natural environmental conditions. In some of the temperate regions where the climatic conditions are extremely adverse and no crops can be grown, man has developed methods of growing some high value crop continuously by providing protection from the excessive cold, which is called as Greenhouse Technology. So, Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favourable environment condition to the plants. It is rather used to protect the plants from the adverse climatic conditions such as wind, cold, precepitation, excessive radiation, extreme temperature, insects and diseases. It is also of vital importance to create an ideal micro climate around the plants. This is possible by erecting a greenhouse / glass house, where the environmental conditions are so One such technology is the green house technology. Although it is centuries old, it
modified that one can grow any plant in any
place at any time by
providing suitable environmental conditions with minimum labour.
framed or inflated structures covered with
transparent or translucent material large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity. Advantages of greenhouses : ♥ The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of out door cultivation depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental control facilities. Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation. Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops. Year round production of floricultural crops. Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops. Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced continuously. Efficient utilisation of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases. Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control. Maintenance of stock plants, cultivating grafted plant-lets and micro propagated plant-lets.
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Hardening of tissue cultured plants Production of quality produce free of blemishes. Most useful in monitoring and controlling the instability of various ecological system. Modern techniques of Hydroponic (Soil less culture), Aeroponics and Nutrient film techniques are possible only under greenhouse cultivation.
GREENHOUSES – WORLD SCENARIO There are more than 50 countries now in the world where cultivation of crops is undertaken on a commercial scale under cover. United States of America has a total area of about 4000 ha under greenhouses mostly used for floriculture with a turnover of more than 2.8 billion US $ per annum and the area under greenhouses is expected to go up considerably, if the cost of transportation of vegetables from neighbouring countries continues to rise. The area under greenhouses in Spain has been estimated to be around 25,000 ha and Italy 18,500 ha used mostly for growing vegetable crops like watermelon, capsicum, strawberries, beans, cucumbers and tomatoes. In Spain simple tunnel type greenhouses are generally used without any elaborate environmental control equipments mostly using UV stabilised...